Rapid activation of lymph nodes and mononuclear cell HIV expression upon interrupting highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients after prolonged viral suppression

Jan Marc Orenstein, Niranjan Bhat, Christian Yoder, Cecil Fox, Michael A. Polis, Julia A. Metcalf, Joseph A. Kovacs, Judith Falloon, Robert E. Walker, Henry Masur, H. Clifford Lane, Richard T. Davey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: To compare the architecture and HIV-1 RNA and Gag p24 protein expression in lymph nodes (LN) excised from individuals during chronic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with LN removed from the same patient after plasma virus rebound following the interruption of HAART. Materials and methods: Six HIV-1-infected patients on HAART, with CD4 cell counts greater than 350 cells/μl, and plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/ml, underwent inguinal LN excision upon discontinuation of HAART, and again after rebound of plasma virus. Lymph nodes were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Gag p24 antigen and Ki67, in-situ hybridization for HIV-1 RNA and H3-histone, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: LN at baseline were quiescent to mildly hyperplastic and generally contained more primary than secondary follicles. Only one LN had detectable follicular dendritic cell (FDC)-associated p24 antigen, none had HIV RNA. Few mononuclear cells (MNC) expressed RNA or p24 antigen. Plasma virus at the second biopsy ranged from 329 to 3.2 x 106 copies/ml. CD4 cell count decline ranged from 5 to 51% during drug hiatus, and was greatest in patients with highest viral rebound. Four of six of the second LN were more hyperplastic than the initial LN, two showed paracortical hyperplasia. MNC expression of HIV RNA in the second LN paralleled the level of plasma viremia. Increased Ki67 and H3-histone signal occurred in the second LN. Conclusion: Quiescent LN from individuals on HAART rapidly become hyperplastic and activated within 1-2 months after treatment interruption. As in acute HIV infection, virus expression by LN MNC parallels the rebound in plasma viremia and fall in CD4 cell count. (C) 2000 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1709-1715
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

Keywords

  • AIDS
  • HAART
  • HIV
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In-situ hybridization
  • Lymph nodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases

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