Adjunctive immunotherapy with heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 120 non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were randomized to a single dose of M. vaccae or placebo 1 week after beginning chemotherapy and were followed up for 1 year. M. vaccae was safe and well tolerated. The rate of sputum culture conversion after 1 month of tuberculosis treatment was 35% in the M. vaccae group and only 14% in the placebo group (P = .01) but was comparable at 2 months and thereafter. Patients receiving M. vaccae had greater improvement on chest radiography at 6 months (91% vs. 77% for placebo recipients; P = .04) and 12 months (94% vs. 80%; P = .04) after initiation of tuberculosis treatment. These data provide evidence of an early increase in sputum culture conversion and greater radiographic improvement among patients who received M. vaccae. Further studies are warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health