Purpose: To compare the efficacy and safety of tafluprost, a preservative-free (PF) prostaglandin analogue, with PF timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Design: Randomized, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial. Methods: After discontinuation and washout of existing ocular hypotensive treatment, patients who had intraocular pressure (IOP) <23 and ≤36 mm Hg in at least 1 eye at the 08:00 hour time point were randomized 1:1 to 12 weeks of treatment with either PF tafluprost 0.0015% or PF timolol 0.5%. IOP was measured 3 times during the day (08:00, 10:00, 16:00 hours) at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, and 12. It was hypothesized that PF tafluprost would be noninferior to PF timolol over 12 weeks with regard to change from baseline IOP. The trial was powered for a noninferiority margin of 1.5 mm Hg at each of the 9 time points assessed. Results: A total of 643 patients were randomized and 618 completed (PF tafluprost = 306, PF timolol = 312). IOPs at the 3 time points assessed during the baseline visit ranged from 23.8 to 26.1 mm Hg in the PF tafluprost group and 23.5 to 26.0 mm Hg in the PF timolol group. IOPs at the 3 time points assessed during the 12-week visit ranged from 17.4 to 18.6 mm Hg for PF tafluprost and 17.9 to 18.5 mm Hg for PF timolol. At all 9 time points, the upper limits of the 2-sided 95% confidence intervals for the difference between treatments in IOP lowering were less than the prespecified noninferiority margin. Similar percentages of PF tafluprost and PF timolol patients reported ocular pain/stinging/irritation (4.4% vs 4.6%) and pruritus (2.5% vs 1.5%). The percentages of PF tafluprost and PF timolol patients reporting conjunctival hyperemia were 4.4% vs 1.2% (nominal P =.016). Conclusions: The IOP-lowering effect of PF tafluprost was noninferior to that of PF timolol. PF tafluprost is an efficacious and generally well-tolerated ocular hypotensive agent.
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