RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION

MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING

Richard R. Sim, Matthew C. Allender, La Tasha K Crawford, Allison N. Wack, Kevin J. Murphy, Joseph L Mankowski, Ellen Bronson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77% of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86%. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55% and 68%, respectively. The 58% survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)256-270
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Fingerprint

Frog virus 3
Ranavirus
Mycoplasma Infections
mycoplasmosis
Herpesviridae Infections
Turtles
monitoring
viruses
turtles
Herpesviridae
Viruses
mouth
polymerase chain reaction
Mycoplasma
Iridoviridae
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Disease Outbreaks
fluid therapy
nutritional support
Stomatitis

Keywords

  • Eastern box turtle
  • FV3-like virus
  • herpesvirus
  • Mycoplasma sp.
  • ranavirus
  • Terrapene carolina carolina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION : MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING. / Sim, Richard R.; Allender, Matthew C.; Crawford, La Tasha K; Wack, Allison N.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Mankowski, Joseph L; Bronson, Ellen.

In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 47, No. 1, 01.03.2016, p. 256-270.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sim, Richard R. ; Allender, Matthew C. ; Crawford, La Tasha K ; Wack, Allison N. ; Murphy, Kevin J. ; Mankowski, Joseph L ; Bronson, Ellen. / RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION : MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING. In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 256-270.
@article{a914165e1cc94998b8baedc131453985,
title = "RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION: MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING",
abstract = "Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77{\%} of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86{\%}. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55{\%} and 68{\%}, respectively. The 58{\%} survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak.",
keywords = "Eastern box turtle, FV3-like virus, herpesvirus, Mycoplasma sp., ranavirus, Terrapene carolina carolina",
author = "Sim, {Richard R.} and Allender, {Matthew C.} and Crawford, {La Tasha K} and Wack, {Allison N.} and Murphy, {Kevin J.} and Mankowski, {Joseph L} and Ellen Bronson",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1638/2015-0048.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "256--270",
journal = "Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine",
issn = "1042-7260",
publisher = "American Association of Zoo Veterinarians",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - RANAVIRUS EPIZOOTIC IN CAPTIVE EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) WITH CONCURRENT HERPESVIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA INFECTION

T2 - MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING

AU - Sim, Richard R.

AU - Allender, Matthew C.

AU - Crawford, La Tasha K

AU - Wack, Allison N.

AU - Murphy, Kevin J.

AU - Mankowski, Joseph L

AU - Bronson, Ellen

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77% of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86%. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55% and 68%, respectively. The 58% survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak.

AB - Frog virus 3 (FV3) and FV3-like viruses are members of the genus Ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) and are becoming recognized as significant pathogens of eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) in North America. In July 2011, 5 turtles from a group of 27 in Maryland, USA, presented dead or lethargic with what was later diagnosed as fibrinonecrotic stomatitis and cloacitis. The presence of FV3-like virus and herpesvirus was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the tested index cases. The remaining 22 animals were isolated, segregated by severity of clinical signs, and treated with nutritional support, fluid therapy, ambient temperature management, antibiotics, and antiviral therapy. Oral swabs were tested serially for FV3-like virus by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and tested at day 0 for herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by conventional PCR. With oral swabs, 77% of the 22 turtles were FV3-like virus positive; however, qPCR on tissues taken during necropsy revealed the true prevalence was 86%. FV3-like virus prevalence and the median number of viral copies being shed significantly declined during the outbreak. The prevalence of herpesvirus and Mycoplasma sp. by PCR of oral swabs at day 0 was 55% and 68%, respectively. The 58% survival rate was higher than previously reported in captive eastern box turtles for a ranavirus epizootic. All surviving turtles brumated normally and emerged the following year with no clinical signs during subsequent monitoring. The immediate initiation of treatment and intensive supportive care were considered the most important contributing factors to the successful outcome in this outbreak.

KW - Eastern box turtle

KW - FV3-like virus

KW - herpesvirus

KW - Mycoplasma sp.

KW - ranavirus

KW - Terrapene carolina carolina

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84973411372&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84973411372&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1638/2015-0048.1

DO - 10.1638/2015-0048.1

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 256

EP - 270

JO - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

JF - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

SN - 1042-7260

IS - 1

ER -