Objective:To examine the relationship of race and maternal characteristics and their association with cord blood vitamin D levels and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status.Study Design:Cord blood vitamin D levels were measured in 438 infants (276 black and 162 white). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between maternal characteristics, vitamin D status and SGA.Results:Black race, Medicaid status, mean body mass index at delivery and lack of prenatal vitamin use were associated with vitamin D deficiency. Black infants had 3.6 greater adjusted odds (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.4, 5.6) of vitamin D deficiency when compared with white infants. Black infants with vitamin D deficiency had 2.4 greater adjusted odds (95% CI: 1.0, 5.8) of SGA. Vitamin D deficiency was not significantly associated with SGA in white infants.Conclusion:Identification of risk factors (black race, Medicaid status, obesity and lack of prenatal vitamin use) can lead to opportunities for targeted prenatal vitamin supplementation to reduce the risk of neonatal vitamin D deficiency and SGA status.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Obstetrics and Gynecology