Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, residential segregation, and spatial variation in noise exposure in the contiguous United States

Joan A. Casey, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Daniel J. Mennitt, Kurt Fristrup, Elizabeth Leigh Ogburn, Peter James

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L50) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L10) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. RESULTS: Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44:3–47:8 dBA] and 42:3 dBA (IQR: 40:4–45:5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46:9 dBA (IQR: 44:7–48:5 dBA) and 44:0 dBA (IQR: 42:2–45:5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor definitions. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in model-based estimates of noise exposure throughout the United States. Additional research is needed to determine if differences in noise exposure may contribute to health disparities in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number077017
JournalEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Volume125
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Fingerprint

Social Class
Noise
Censuses
Poverty
Unemployment
Environmental Exposure
Linguistics
Population Density
Research
Education
Weights and Measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, residential segregation, and spatial variation in noise exposure in the contiguous United States. / Casey, Joan A.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J.; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth Leigh; James, Peter.

In: Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 125, No. 7, 077017, 01.07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0ea2328c4ac64aa180bed01cc9eb2b21,
title = "Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, residential segregation, and spatial variation in noise exposure in the contiguous United States",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L50) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L10) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. RESULTS: Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75{\%} vs. 0{\%} black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44:3–47:8 dBA] and 42:3 dBA (IQR: 40:4–45:5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50{\%} vs. 0{\%} of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46:9 dBA (IQR: 44:7–48:5 dBA) and 44:0 dBA (IQR: 42:2–45:5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor definitions. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in model-based estimates of noise exposure throughout the United States. Additional research is needed to determine if differences in noise exposure may contribute to health disparities in the United States.",
author = "Casey, {Joan A.} and Rachel Morello-Frosch and Mennitt, {Daniel J.} and Kurt Fristrup and Ogburn, {Elizabeth Leigh} and Peter James",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1289/EHP898",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "125",
journal = "Environmental Health Perspectives",
issn = "0091-6765",
publisher = "Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, residential segregation, and spatial variation in noise exposure in the contiguous United States

AU - Casey, Joan A.

AU - Morello-Frosch, Rachel

AU - Mennitt, Daniel J.

AU - Fristrup, Kurt

AU - Ogburn, Elizabeth Leigh

AU - James, Peter

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L50) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L10) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. RESULTS: Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44:3–47:8 dBA] and 42:3 dBA (IQR: 40:4–45:5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46:9 dBA (IQR: 44:7–48:5 dBA) and 44:0 dBA (IQR: 42:2–45:5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor definitions. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in model-based estimates of noise exposure throughout the United States. Additional research is needed to determine if differences in noise exposure may contribute to health disparities in the United States.

AB - BACKGROUND: Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to a) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. METHODS: We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L50) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L10) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. RESULTS: Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44:3–47:8 dBA] and 42:3 dBA (IQR: 40:4–45:5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46:9 dBA (IQR: 44:7–48:5 dBA) and 44:0 dBA (IQR: 42:2–45:5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor definitions. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in model-based estimates of noise exposure throughout the United States. Additional research is needed to determine if differences in noise exposure may contribute to health disparities in the United States.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85032837959&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85032837959&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1289/EHP898

DO - 10.1289/EHP898

M3 - Article

C2 - 28749369

AN - SCOPUS:85032837959

VL - 125

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - 7

M1 - 077017

ER -