Background: Despite guidelines cautioning against the use of endovascular peripheral vascular interventions (PVI) for claudication, more than 1.3 million PVI procedures are performed annually in the United States. We aimed to describe national rates of PVI for claudication, and identify patient and county-level risk factors associated with a high rate of PVI. Methods: We used the Medicare claims database to identify all Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of claudication between January 2015 and June 2017. A hierarchical logistic regression model accounting for patient age, sex, comorbidities; county region and setting; and a patient race-county median income interaction was used to assess the associations of race and income with a high PVI rate. Results: We identified 1,201,234 patients with a new diagnosis of claudication for analysis. Of these, 15,227 (1.27%) underwent a PVI. Based on hierarchical logistic regression accounting for patient and county-level factors, black patients residing in low-income counties had a significantly higher odds of undergoing PVI than their white counterparts (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.40), whereas the odds of PVI for black versus white patients was similar in high-income counties (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.14). PVI rates were higher for low versus high-income counties in both the black (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.31-1.64) and white (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.27) groups. There were no significant associations of Hispanic, Asian, North American native, or other races with PVI in either low- or high-income counties after risk adjustment (all P ≥ .09). Conclusions: In the Medicare population, the mean rate of PVI of 12.7 per 1000 claudication patients varies significantly based on race and income. Our data suggest there are racial and socioeconomic differences in the treatment of claudication across the United States.
- Peripheral artery disease
- Socioeconomic status
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine