Guanylin, a peptide purified from rat jejunum, is thought to regulate water and electrolyte balance in the intestine. We show here, using a combination of Northern blots, Western blots, and functional assays, that guanylin and its receptor (GCC) are not distributed in parallel within the rat intestine. To investigate the possibility that there might be a second intestinal peptide that serves as a ligand for GCC, we assayed tissue extracts for the ability to stimulate cyclic GMP synthesis in a GCC-expressing cell line. Duodenal extracts display a peak of biological activity that is not present in colon and that does not comigrate with guanylin or proguanylin. The activity co-purifies with a novel peptide (TIATDECELCINVACTGC) that has high homology with uroguanylin, a peptide initially purified from human and opossum urine. A rat uroguanylin cDNA clone was found to encode a propeptide whose C-terminus corresponds to our purified peptide. Northern blots with probes generated from this clone reveal that prouroguanylin mRNA. is strongly expressed in proximal small intestine, but virtually absent from colon, corroborating our biochemical measurements. Taken together, these studies demonstrate an intestinal origin for uroguanylin, and show that within the intestine its distribution is complementary to that of guanylin.
- STa receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience