While initially advocated primarily for intrasurgical visualization (e.g., craniotomy), interventional MRI rapidly evolved into roles in image- guided localization for needle-based procedures, minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures, and thermal ablation of cancer. In this contest, MRI pulse sequences and scanning methods serve one of four primary roles: (1) speed improvement, (2) device localization, (3) anatomy/lesion differentiation and (4) temperature sensitivity. The first part of this manuscript deals with passive visualization of MR-compatible needles and the effects of field strength, sequence design, and orientation of the needle relative to the static magnetic field of the scanner. Issues and recommendations are given for low-field as well as high-field scanners. The second part contains methods reported to achieve improved acquisition efficiency over conventional phase encoding (wavelets, locally focused imaging, singular value decomposition and keyhole imaging). Finally, the last part of the manuscript reports the current status of thermosensitive sequences and their dependence on spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), water diffusion coefficient (D) and proton chemical shift (δ).
- Biopsy needle
- Interventional MRI
- Rapid imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging