Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a rare disorder. Accurate diagnosis often requires anatomical examination. We report four children with pulmonary vein stenosis. Autopsy showed bilateral lesions in two patients who were thought clinically to have unilateral disease. A diagnosis of PVS was made at autopsy in the third case. Intimal and medial fibromuscular proliferation was noted in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary veins. Some of the fibromuscular proliferation were eccentric, resembling organized thrombi. In one case a focal organizing thrombus was found in a clinically unobstructed but anatomically narrowed veno-atrial junction. In another case injection of contrast medium into the stenotic pulmonary vein (PV) showed anastomosis between PV and bronchial vessels as well as small pulmonary arteries. Bilateral hypertensive arteriopathy was observed in unilateral and bilateral PVS. Our histological finding of intrapulmonary venous lesions in the lobes in which PVS was not detected clinically suggests that during surgical correction of unilateral PVS multiple biopsies of the opposite lung may help to evaluate possible bilateral disease. Our study also suggests that thrombosis in a stenotic pulmonary vein may further compromise the lumen and contribute to the progression of pulmonary vein obstruction. The possible pathogenesis of bilateral pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy in unilateral PVS also is discussed.
- bronchopulmonary anastomosis
- pulmonary hypertension
- pulmonary hypertensive arteriopathy
- pulmonary vein stenosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine