Proximalization of the Vascularized Toe Joint in Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Reconstruction: A Technique to Derive Optimal Flexion From a Joint With Expected Limited Motion

Raja Mohan, Victor W. Wong, James Patrick Higgins, Ryan Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


When used to reconstruct a finger proximal interphalangeal joint, a free toe interphalangeal joint, without modification, cannot meet the motion demands of the finger to allow palm touchdown. This limitation is the direct result of the toe interphalangeal joint having an intrinsic arc of motion that delivers less flexion than that of a normal functioning finger proximal interphalangeal joint. By modifying the inset of the transferred joint to an extra-anatomical more proximal position, this limitation can be overcome. With a mathematical justification highlighted by a clinical illustration, we demonstrate the feasibility and utility of this “proximalization” technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e125-e132
JournalJournal of Hand Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017



  • Free toe joint
  • proximal interphalangeal joint
  • proximalization
  • reconstruction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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