Objectives. To determine serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men born with bladder exstrophy and to investigate the clinical utility of this test in the bladder exstrophy population. Methods. Ten men aged 19 to 45 years with a history of bladder exstrophy underwent digital rectal examination and free and total serum PSA determinations. Immunohistochemistry for PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) was performed on archival prostate tissue from 1 man with bladder exstrophy. Results. Free and total serum PSA levels for all patients were measurable and below the upper limit for established age-specific reference ranges for normal men. Both PSA and PSAP were detectable by immunohistochemistry in prostate epithelial cells of a man with bladder exstrophy. Conclusions. Men born with bladder exstrophy have detectable serum PSA levels. However, because prostate cancer in men with bladder exstrophy has not been reported, whether PSA will have a clinical role as a serum tumor marker for prostate cancer in this population remains to be determined. If so, the PSA reference range for men with the exstrophy condition will need to be defined. Because prostate histology in men with exstrophy resembles that of normal men, careful clinical monitoring for benign and malignant tumors should not be overlooked in this particular population.
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