Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Normal cells have a level of epigenetic programming that is superimposed on the genetic code to establish and maintain their cell identity and phenotypes. This epigenetic programming can be thought as the architecture, a sort of cityscape, that is built upon the underlying genetic landscape. The epigenetic programming is encoded by a complex set of chemical marks on DNA, on histone proteins in nucleosomes, and by numerous context-specific DNA, RNA, protein interactions that all regulate the structure, organization, and function of the genome in a given cell. It is becoming increasingly evident that abnormalities in both the genetic landscape and epigenetic cityscape can cooperate to drive carcinogenesis and disease progression. Large-scale cancer genome sequencing studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding the enzymatic machinery for shaping the epigenetic cityscape are among the most common mutations observed in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Interestingly, although the constellation of genetic mutations in a given cancer can be quite heterogeneous from person to person, there are numerous epigenetic alterations that appear to be highly recurrent, and nearly universal in a given cancer type, including in prostate cancer. The highly recurrent nature of these alterations can be exploited for development of biomarkers for cancer detection and risk stratification and as targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we explore the basic principles of epigenetic processes in normal cells and prostate cancer cells and discuss the potential clinical implications with regards to prostate cancer biomarker development and therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)549-558
Number of pages10
JournalAsian Journal of Andrology
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Fingerprint

Epigenomics
Prostatic Neoplasms
Tumor Biomarkers
Mutation
Genetic Epigenesis
Genome
Genetic Code
Neoplasms
Nucleosomes
DNA
Histones
Disease Progression
Carcinogenesis
Proteins
RNA
Phenotype
Therapeutics
Genes

Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • DNA methylation
  • epigenetics
  • epigenomics
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

Prostate cancer epigenetics and its clinical implications. / Yegnasubramanian, S.

In: Asian Journal of Andrology, Vol. 18, No. 4, 01.07.2016, p. 549-558.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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