Prostate cancer and parasitism of the bone hematopoietic stem cell niche

Chunyan Yu, Yusuke Shiozawa, Russell S. Taichman, Laurie K. McCauley, Kenneth J. Pienta, Evan T. Keller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A subpopulation of men that appear cured of prostate cancer (PCa) develop bone metastases many years after prostatectomy. This observation indicates that PCa cells were present outside of the prostate at the time of prostatectomy and remained dormant. Several lines of evidence indicate that there are disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow at the time of prostatectomy. DTCs parasitize the bone microenvironment, where they derive support and impact the microenvironment itself. These DTCs appear to be a heterogeneous population of PCa cells; however, some of them appear to have some aspects of a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype as they can develop into clinically detectable metastases. The concept of CSC is controversial; however, several markers of CSC have been identified for PCa, which may represent cells of either basal or luminal origin. These DTCs have now been shown to compete for the hematopoietic stem cell niche in bone, where they may be placed in a dormant state. Interaction with a variety of host factors, including cytokine and cells, may impact the metastatic development and progression, including the dormant state. For example, myeloid cells have been shown to impact both the premetastatic niche and established tumors. Understanding the concepts of how PCa successfully parasitizes the bone microenvironment is paramount toward identifying therapeutic candidates to prevent or diminish PCa bone metastases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-148
Number of pages18
JournalCritical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Volume22
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cancer stem cell
  • Hematopoietic stem cell
  • Microenvironment
  • Monocytes
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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