Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania: Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014

for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Following surveys in 2004–2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014. Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. In 2012 and 2013, 12 at-risk districts were selected based on proximity to known trachoma endemic districts, while in 2014, trachoma rapid assessments were undertaken, and 19 of 55 districts prioritized for baseline surveys. A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was applied whereby 20 villages (clusters) and 36 households per cluster were surveyed. Eligible participants, children aged 1–9 years and people aged 15 years and older, were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Results: A total of 23,171 households were surveyed and 104,959 participants (92.3% of those enumerated) examined for trachoma signs. A total of 44,511 children aged 1–9 years and 65,255 people aged 15 years and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) and trichiasis, respectively. Prevalence of TF varied by district, ranging from 0.0% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.0–0.1%) in Mbinga to 11.8% (95% CI 6.8–16.5%) in Chunya. Trichiasis prevalence was lowest in Urambo (0.03%, 95% CI 0.00–0.24%) and highest in Kibaha (1.08%, 95% CI 0.74–1.43%). Conclusion: Only three districts qualified for mass drug administration with azithromycin. Trichiasis is still a public health problem in many districts, thus community-based trichiasis surgery should be considered to prevent blindness due to trachoma. These findings will facilitate achievement of trachoma elimination objectives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-380
Number of pages8
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016

Fingerprint

Trachoma
Tanzania
Trichiasis
Azithromycin
Blindness
Surveys and Questionnaires
Public Health
Confidence Intervals
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Baseline survey
  • GTMP
  • SAFE strategy
  • Tanzania
  • trachoma
  • trichiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania : Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014. / for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology, Vol. 23, No. 6, 01.11.2016, p. 373-380.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. / Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania : Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014. In: Ophthalmic Epidemiology. 2016 ; Vol. 23, No. 6. pp. 373-380.
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abstract = "Purpose: Following surveys in 2004–2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014. Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. In 2012 and 2013, 12 at-risk districts were selected based on proximity to known trachoma endemic districts, while in 2014, trachoma rapid assessments were undertaken, and 19 of 55 districts prioritized for baseline surveys. A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was applied whereby 20 villages (clusters) and 36 households per cluster were surveyed. Eligible participants, children aged 1–9 years and people aged 15 years and older, were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Results: A total of 23,171 households were surveyed and 104,959 participants (92.3{\%} of those enumerated) examined for trachoma signs. A total of 44,511 children aged 1–9 years and 65,255 people aged 15 years and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) and trichiasis, respectively. Prevalence of TF varied by district, ranging from 0.0{\%} (95{\%} confidence interval, CI 0.0–0.1{\%}) in Mbinga to 11.8{\%} (95{\%} CI 6.8–16.5{\%}) in Chunya. Trichiasis prevalence was lowest in Urambo (0.03{\%}, 95{\%} CI 0.00–0.24{\%}) and highest in Kibaha (1.08{\%}, 95{\%} CI 0.74–1.43{\%}). Conclusion: Only three districts qualified for mass drug administration with azithromycin. Trichiasis is still a public health problem in many districts, thus community-based trichiasis surgery should be considered to prevent blindness due to trachoma. These findings will facilitate achievement of trachoma elimination objectives.",
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author = "{for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project} and Mwingira, {Upendo J.} and George Kabona and Mathias Kamugisha and Edward Kirumbi and Bernard Kilembe and Alistidia Simon and Andreas Nshala and Deogratias Damas and Alphonsina Nanai and Mwelecele Malecela and Maria Chikawe and Christina Mbise and Harran Mkocha and Patrick Massae and Mkali, {Humphrey R.} and Lisa Rotondo and Kathryn Crowley and Rebecca Willis and Solomon, {Anthony W.} and Ngondi, {Jeremiah M.} and Agatha Aboe and Liknaw Adamu and Wondu Alemayehu and Menbere Alemu and Alexander, {Neal D E} and Berhanu Bero and Brooker, {Simon J.} and Simon Bush and Chu, {Brian K.} and Paul Courtright and Michael Dejene and Emerson, {Paul M.} and Flueckiger, {Rebecca M.} and Allen Foster and Solomon Gadisa and Katherine Gass and Teshome Gebre and Zelalem Habtamu and Danny Haddad and Erik Harvey and Dominic Haslam and Khumbo Kalua and Kello, {Amir B.} and King, {Jonathan D.} and Mesurier, {Richard L.} and Susan Lewallen and Lietman, {Thomas M.} and Chad MacArthur and Beatriz Munoz and West, {Sheila K}",
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T2 - Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014

AU - for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project

AU - Mwingira, Upendo J.

AU - Kabona, George

AU - Kamugisha, Mathias

AU - Kirumbi, Edward

AU - Kilembe, Bernard

AU - Simon, Alistidia

AU - Nshala, Andreas

AU - Damas, Deogratias

AU - Nanai, Alphonsina

AU - Malecela, Mwelecele

AU - Chikawe, Maria

AU - Mbise, Christina

AU - Mkocha, Harran

AU - Massae, Patrick

AU - Mkali, Humphrey R.

AU - Rotondo, Lisa

AU - Crowley, Kathryn

AU - Willis, Rebecca

AU - Solomon, Anthony W.

AU - Ngondi, Jeremiah M.

AU - Aboe, Agatha

AU - Adamu, Liknaw

AU - Alemayehu, Wondu

AU - Alemu, Menbere

AU - Alexander, Neal D E

AU - Bero, Berhanu

AU - Brooker, Simon J.

AU - Bush, Simon

AU - Chu, Brian K.

AU - Courtright, Paul

AU - Dejene, Michael

AU - Emerson, Paul M.

AU - Flueckiger, Rebecca M.

AU - Foster, Allen

AU - Gadisa, Solomon

AU - Gass, Katherine

AU - Gebre, Teshome

AU - Habtamu, Zelalem

AU - Haddad, Danny

AU - Harvey, Erik

AU - Haslam, Dominic

AU - Kalua, Khumbo

AU - Kello, Amir B.

AU - King, Jonathan D.

AU - Mesurier, Richard L.

AU - Lewallen, Susan

AU - Lietman, Thomas M.

AU - MacArthur, Chad

AU - Munoz, Beatriz

AU - West, Sheila K

PY - 2016/11/1

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N2 - Purpose: Following surveys in 2004–2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014. Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. In 2012 and 2013, 12 at-risk districts were selected based on proximity to known trachoma endemic districts, while in 2014, trachoma rapid assessments were undertaken, and 19 of 55 districts prioritized for baseline surveys. A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was applied whereby 20 villages (clusters) and 36 households per cluster were surveyed. Eligible participants, children aged 1–9 years and people aged 15 years and older, were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Results: A total of 23,171 households were surveyed and 104,959 participants (92.3% of those enumerated) examined for trachoma signs. A total of 44,511 children aged 1–9 years and 65,255 people aged 15 years and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) and trichiasis, respectively. Prevalence of TF varied by district, ranging from 0.0% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.0–0.1%) in Mbinga to 11.8% (95% CI 6.8–16.5%) in Chunya. Trichiasis prevalence was lowest in Urambo (0.03%, 95% CI 0.00–0.24%) and highest in Kibaha (1.08%, 95% CI 0.74–1.43%). Conclusion: Only three districts qualified for mass drug administration with azithromycin. Trichiasis is still a public health problem in many districts, thus community-based trichiasis surgery should be considered to prevent blindness due to trachoma. These findings will facilitate achievement of trachoma elimination objectives.

AB - Purpose: Following surveys in 2004–2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014. Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. In 2012 and 2013, 12 at-risk districts were selected based on proximity to known trachoma endemic districts, while in 2014, trachoma rapid assessments were undertaken, and 19 of 55 districts prioritized for baseline surveys. A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was applied whereby 20 villages (clusters) and 36 households per cluster were surveyed. Eligible participants, children aged 1–9 years and people aged 15 years and older, were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. Results: A total of 23,171 households were surveyed and 104,959 participants (92.3% of those enumerated) examined for trachoma signs. A total of 44,511 children aged 1–9 years and 65,255 people aged 15 years and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation–follicular (TF) and trichiasis, respectively. Prevalence of TF varied by district, ranging from 0.0% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.0–0.1%) in Mbinga to 11.8% (95% CI 6.8–16.5%) in Chunya. Trichiasis prevalence was lowest in Urambo (0.03%, 95% CI 0.00–0.24%) and highest in Kibaha (1.08%, 95% CI 0.74–1.43%). Conclusion: Only three districts qualified for mass drug administration with azithromycin. Trichiasis is still a public health problem in many districts, thus community-based trichiasis surgery should be considered to prevent blindness due to trachoma. These findings will facilitate achievement of trachoma elimination objectives.

KW - Baseline survey

KW - GTMP

KW - SAFE strategy

KW - Tanzania

KW - trachoma

KW - trichiasis

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