Prognostic significance of mitotic rate in localized primary cutaneous melanoma: An analysis of patients in the multi-institutional american joint committee on cancer melanoma staging database

John F. Thompson, Seng Jaw Soong, Charles M. Balch, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Shouluan Ding, Daniel G. Coit, Keith T. Flaherty, Phyllis A. Gimotty, Timothy Johnson, Marcella M. Johnson, Stanley P. Leong, Merrick I. Ross, David R. Byrd, Natale Cascinelli, Alistair J. Cochran, Alexander M. Eggermont, Kelly M. McMasters, Martin C. Mihm, Donald L. Morton, Vernon K. Sondak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the independent prognostic value of primary tumor mitotic rate compared with other clinical and pathologic features of stages I and II melanoma. Methods: From the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging database, information was extracted for 13,296 patients with stages I and II disease who had mitotic rate data available. Results Survival times declined as mitotic rate increased. Ten-year survival ranged from 93% for patients whose tumors had 0 mitosis/mm2 to 48% for those with ≥ 20/mm2 (P < .001). Mean number of mitoses/mm2 increased as the primary melanomas became thicker (1.0 for melanomas ≤ 1 mm, 3.5 for 1.01 to 2.0 mm, 7.3 for 3.01 to 4.0 mm, and 9.6 for > 8 mm). Ulceration was also associated with a higher mitotic rate; 59% of ulcerated melanomas had ≥ 5 mitoses/mm2 compared with 16% of nonulcerated melanomas (P < .001). In a multivariate analysis of 10,233 patients, the independent predictive factors for survival in order of statistical significance were as follows: tumor thickness (χ2 = 104.9; P < .001), mitotic rate (χ2 = 67.0; P < .001), patient age (χ2 = 48.2; P < .001), ulceration (χ2 = 46.4; P < .001), anatomic site (χ2 = 34.6; P < .001), and patient sex (χ2 = 33.9; P < .001). Clark level of invasion was not an independent predictor of survival (χ2 = 3.2; P = .37). Conclusion: A high mitotic rate in a primary melanoma is associated with a lower survival probability. Among the independent predictors of melanoma-specific survival, mitotic rate was the strongest prognostic factor after tumor thickness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2199-2205
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume29
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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