Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms driving castration-resistant prostate cancer have promoted the development of several new drugs including androgen receptor-directed therapy and chemotherapy. Concomitant docetaxel treatment at the beginning of hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer has resulted in longer overall survival than with hormonal therapy alone. Elucidating an appropriate treatment sequence using these therapies is important for maximizing clinical benefit in castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. The development of advanced high-throughput 'omics' technology has enabled the use of novel markers to guide prognosis and treatment of this disease. In this review, we outline the genomic landscape of prostate cancer and the molecular mechanisms of castration-resistant progression, and how these affect the development of new drugs, and their clinical implications for selecting treatment sequence. We also discuss many of the potential tissue-based or liquid biomarkers that may soon enter clinical use, with the hope that several of these prognostic or predictive markers will guide precision medicine for prostate cancer patients in the near future.
- castration-resistant prostate cancer
- prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas