Disaster exposure may exacerbate psychopathology and substance-related disorders. Four months after September 11, 2001, using random-digit dialing to contact a representative sample of adults (N = 2001) living in New York City, we assessed cigarette smoking and symptoms of probable cigarette dependence using measures from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.Atotal of 36.8% of smokers reported increased cigarette use; 10.4% of respondents reported three or more symptoms of cigarette dependence and were considered cases of probable cigarette dependence based on DSM-IV criteria. Cases were more likely to report an increase in cigarette use since September 11 than non-cases (69.4% among cases vs. 2.2% among non-cases, p < 0.001). Cases were more likely to have probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression than non-cases (18.1% vs. 5.7% for PTSD, p < 0.001; 23.6% vs. 6.0% for depression, p < 0.001). Increased cigarette use since September 11 was associated with probable PTSD among cases (23.4% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.011) and non-cases (15.1% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.034) but was associated with probable depression only among cases of probable cigarette dependence (28.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.027). This study showed the co-occurrence of probable cigarette dependence with increased cigarette use and the co-occurrence of probable cigarette dependence with probable PTSD and depression after September 11.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Psychiatry and Mental health