Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. Elevated incidence of HCC is strongly associated with hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to hepatotoxic contaminants. Vaccination programs against viral hepatitis hold hope for the eventual reduction of HCC incidence, and screening of cirrhotic patients may provide one mechanism for improving prognosis of HCC patients. Additional efforts have focused on preventing or retarding liver cancer development in populations at risk for HCC mortality. This review highlights recent clinical trials aimed at exploring the efficacy and practicality of chemoprevention efforts in these cohorts. Preclinical findings that provide insight into mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis and point to potential strategies for intervention also are discussed. Finally, novel molecular mechanisms contributing to the known ability of chemopreventive agents to inhibit liver cancer in experimental models are explored.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research