Prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in cancer patients

Nagamallika Jasti, Michael B. Streiff

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Central venous catheters (CVC) play an essential role in the management of cancer patients. Venous thrombosis is a common complication of CVC. The incidence of CVC-associated venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) is 1.7 per 1000 catheter days. Risk factors for CVC-VTE include the patient's underlying cancer, a history of previous thrombotic events and the location and type of CVC. Anticoagulant prophylaxis is not effective for CVC-VTE. Anticoagulation alone is the preferred initial treatment for CVC-VTE. CVC removal may be considered in refractory cases or when anticoagulation is contraindicated. Thrombolytic therapy is reserved for patients with limb-threatening thrombosis or thrombosis unresponsive to conventional treatment. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 3 months or as long as the CVC is present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)599-616
Number of pages18
JournalExpert review of hematology
Volume7
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Keywords

  • anticoagulation
  • cancer
  • central venous access device
  • central venous catheter
  • prevention
  • prophylaxis
  • treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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