Prevalence, Trends, and Distribution of Nicotine and Marijuana use in E-cigarettes among US adults: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2016–2018

S. M.Iftekhar Uddin, Albert D. Osei, Olufunmilayo H. Obisesan, Omar El-Shahawy, Omar Dzaye, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, Olusola A. Orimoloye, Andrew Stokes, Emelia J. Benjamin, Aruni Bhatnagar, Andrew P. DeFilippis, Travis S. Henry, Khurram Nasir, Michael J. Blaha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Use of substances other than nicotine in e-cigarettes, especially marijuana, is becoming increasingly popular in the US. However, population-representative data on such poly-use (nicotine and marijuana) remains limited. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional logistic regression analysis of the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System among 16 US states/territories with data on past 30-day marijuana use to describe the emerging dual nicotine and marijuana vaping population. We additionally examined trends in marijuana use, including marijuana vaping, from 2016 to 2018. Of the 131,807 participants studied, 3068 were current e-cigarette users, among whom 7.1% also vaped marijuana. Prevalence of nicotine-predominant, dual nicotine marijuana, and marijuana-predominant vaping was 3.36%, 0.38% and 1.09%, respectively. Compared to nicotine-predominant vapers, dual and marijuana-predominant vapers were older, had greater proportions of non-Whites, particularly Hispanics, and less likely to be current smokers (nicotine-predominant vs dual vs marijuana-predominant vaping: current tobacco use 44.7 vs 23.7 vs 11.1%). Proportion of dual vapers among current e-cigarette users was 8.6%, 2.6% and 7.1% for 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. Prevalence of marijuana use increased from 8.97% (2016) to 13.1% (2018) while no clear trend was observed for marijuana vaping. Dual nicotine and marijuana vaping is prevalent in the US, and compared to predominantly nicotine vapers such users have higher mean ages, and are more likely to be Blacks, Hispanics, and never cigarette smokers. Marijuana use overall increased from 2016 to 2018. Dual vapers represent a large and important emerging population that will require dedicated study of health effects and tailored regulatory strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106175
JournalPreventive Medicine
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Electronic cigarettes
  • Marijuana
  • Prevalence
  • Surveys
  • Tobacco
  • Vaping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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