Introduction Tetanus infection associated with men who had male circumcision has been reported in East Africa, suggesting a need for tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines (TTCV). Objective To determine the prevalence of tetanus toxoid antibodies following vaccination among men seeking circumcision. Methods We enrolled 620 consenting men who completed a questionnaire and received TTCV at enrollment (day 0) prior to circumcision on day 28. Blood samples were obtained at day 0 from all enrollees and on days 14, 28 and 42 from a random sample of 237 participants. Tetanus toxoid (TT) IgG antibody levels were assayed using EUROIMMUN. Analyses included prevalence of TT antibodies at enrollment and used a mixed effects model to determine the immunological response. Results Mean age was 21.4 years, 65.2% had knowledge of tetanus, 56.6% knew how tetanus was contracted, 22.8% reported ever receipt of TTCV, and 16.8% had current/recently healed wounds. Insufficient tetanus immunity was 57.1% at enrollment, 7.2% at day 14, 3.8% at day 28, and 0% at day 42. Antibody concentration was 0.44IU/ml (CI 0.35–0.53) on day 0, 3.86IU/ml (CI 3.60–4.11) on day 14, 4.05IU/ml (CI 3.81–4.29) on day 28, and 4.48IU/ml (CI 4.28–4.68) on day 42. TT antibodies increased by 0.24IU/ml (CI 0.23, 0.26) between days 0 and 14 and by 0.023IU/ml (CI 0.015, 0.031) between days 14 and 42 days. Immunological response was poorer in HIV-infected clients and men aged 35+ years. Conclusion Insufficient immunity was common prior to TTCV, and a protective immunological response was achieved by day 14. Circumcision may safely be provided 14 days after vaccination in HIV-uninfected men aged less than 35 years.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)