Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity

Graham E. Quinn, Velma Dobson, Jane Kivlin, Lawrence M. Kaufman, Michael X Repka, James D. Reynolds, Robert A. Gordon, Robert J. Hardy, Betty Tung, Richard A. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine spherical equivalent refractive errors, especially myopia, at six ages between 3 months and 5 1/4 years post-term in preterm children with birth weights of less than 1251 g. Design: A cohort study. Participants: There were a total of 827 participants in the multicenter study of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Approximately one third of the eyes did not develop ROP, whereas two thirds developed mild-to-severe ROP. None of the eyes underwent cryotherapy. Intervention: Refractive error was measured at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 1/4 years after term due date at the five long-term follow-up centers. In most eyes, refractive error also was measured at 2, 3 1/4 , and 4 1/4 years. Main Outcome Measure: Myopia was defined as 0.25 diopter (D) or greater with high myopia as 5 D or greater. Results: The proportion of eyes with myopia in this preterm population was increased compared to published data on full-term children and was related to severity of both acute-phase and cicatricial- phase ROP. The percentage of eyes with myopia varied little across ages, ranging from 21.2% at 1 year to 15.7% at 4 1/4 years. The percentage of eyes with high myopia doubled from 1.8% to 3.9% between 3 months and 1 year and remained stable thereafter. The distribution of refractive errors in eyes with mild acute-phase ROP was similar to that of eyes with no ROP. In contrast, eyes with moderate or severe acute-phase ROP showed an increased prevalence of high myopia. The distribution of refractive errors changed between 3 months and 1 year with little change after 1 year. This pattern of refractive development differs from that of full-term infants. Birth weight, severity of ROP, and degree of myopia at 3 months predicted the presence of myopia and high myopia at 5 1/4 years of age. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors in preterm infants from age 3 months to 5 1/4 years varies with severity of acute-phase ROP and cicatricial disease. Changes in refractive error distribution occur primarily between 3 months and 1 year and involve a decrease in the proportion of eyes with hyperopia and an increase in the proportion with high degrees of myopia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1300
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmology
Volume105
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 1998

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Retinopathy of Prematurity
Premature Infants
Myopia
Refractive Errors
Cryotherapy
Birth Weight
Myopia 3
Hyperopia
Multicenter Studies
Cohort Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity. / Quinn, Graham E.; Dobson, Velma; Kivlin, Jane; Kaufman, Lawrence M.; Repka, Michael X; Reynolds, James D.; Gordon, Robert A.; Hardy, Robert J.; Tung, Betty; Stone, Richard A.

In: Ophthalmology, Vol. 105, No. 7, 01.07.1998, p. 1292-1300.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Quinn, GE, Dobson, V, Kivlin, J, Kaufman, LM, Repka, MX, Reynolds, JD, Gordon, RA, Hardy, RJ, Tung, B & Stone, RA 1998, 'Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity', Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1292-1300. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(98)97036-1
Quinn, Graham E. ; Dobson, Velma ; Kivlin, Jane ; Kaufman, Lawrence M. ; Repka, Michael X ; Reynolds, James D. ; Gordon, Robert A. ; Hardy, Robert J. ; Tung, Betty ; Stone, Richard A. / Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity. In: Ophthalmology. 1998 ; Vol. 105, No. 7. pp. 1292-1300.
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abstract = "Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine spherical equivalent refractive errors, especially myopia, at six ages between 3 months and 5 1/4 years post-term in preterm children with birth weights of less than 1251 g. Design: A cohort study. Participants: There were a total of 827 participants in the multicenter study of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Approximately one third of the eyes did not develop ROP, whereas two thirds developed mild-to-severe ROP. None of the eyes underwent cryotherapy. Intervention: Refractive error was measured at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 1/4 years after term due date at the five long-term follow-up centers. In most eyes, refractive error also was measured at 2, 3 1/4 , and 4 1/4 years. Main Outcome Measure: Myopia was defined as 0.25 diopter (D) or greater with high myopia as 5 D or greater. Results: The proportion of eyes with myopia in this preterm population was increased compared to published data on full-term children and was related to severity of both acute-phase and cicatricial- phase ROP. The percentage of eyes with myopia varied little across ages, ranging from 21.2{\%} at 1 year to 15.7{\%} at 4 1/4 years. The percentage of eyes with high myopia doubled from 1.8{\%} to 3.9{\%} between 3 months and 1 year and remained stable thereafter. The distribution of refractive errors in eyes with mild acute-phase ROP was similar to that of eyes with no ROP. In contrast, eyes with moderate or severe acute-phase ROP showed an increased prevalence of high myopia. The distribution of refractive errors changed between 3 months and 1 year with little change after 1 year. This pattern of refractive development differs from that of full-term infants. Birth weight, severity of ROP, and degree of myopia at 3 months predicted the presence of myopia and high myopia at 5 1/4 years of age. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors in preterm infants from age 3 months to 5 1/4 years varies with severity of acute-phase ROP and cicatricial disease. Changes in refractive error distribution occur primarily between 3 months and 1 year and involve a decrease in the proportion of eyes with hyperopia and an increase in the proportion with high degrees of myopia.",
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T1 - Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity

AU - Quinn, Graham E.

AU - Dobson, Velma

AU - Kivlin, Jane

AU - Kaufman, Lawrence M.

AU - Repka, Michael X

AU - Reynolds, James D.

AU - Gordon, Robert A.

AU - Hardy, Robert J.

AU - Tung, Betty

AU - Stone, Richard A.

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N2 - Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine spherical equivalent refractive errors, especially myopia, at six ages between 3 months and 5 1/4 years post-term in preterm children with birth weights of less than 1251 g. Design: A cohort study. Participants: There were a total of 827 participants in the multicenter study of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Approximately one third of the eyes did not develop ROP, whereas two thirds developed mild-to-severe ROP. None of the eyes underwent cryotherapy. Intervention: Refractive error was measured at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 1/4 years after term due date at the five long-term follow-up centers. In most eyes, refractive error also was measured at 2, 3 1/4 , and 4 1/4 years. Main Outcome Measure: Myopia was defined as 0.25 diopter (D) or greater with high myopia as 5 D or greater. Results: The proportion of eyes with myopia in this preterm population was increased compared to published data on full-term children and was related to severity of both acute-phase and cicatricial- phase ROP. The percentage of eyes with myopia varied little across ages, ranging from 21.2% at 1 year to 15.7% at 4 1/4 years. The percentage of eyes with high myopia doubled from 1.8% to 3.9% between 3 months and 1 year and remained stable thereafter. The distribution of refractive errors in eyes with mild acute-phase ROP was similar to that of eyes with no ROP. In contrast, eyes with moderate or severe acute-phase ROP showed an increased prevalence of high myopia. The distribution of refractive errors changed between 3 months and 1 year with little change after 1 year. This pattern of refractive development differs from that of full-term infants. Birth weight, severity of ROP, and degree of myopia at 3 months predicted the presence of myopia and high myopia at 5 1/4 years of age. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors in preterm infants from age 3 months to 5 1/4 years varies with severity of acute-phase ROP and cicatricial disease. Changes in refractive error distribution occur primarily between 3 months and 1 year and involve a decrease in the proportion of eyes with hyperopia and an increase in the proportion with high degrees of myopia.

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