Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Design Cross-sectional study of patients with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods Intermediate-stage AMD was determined from enrollment retinal photographs by graders at a centralized Reading Center, using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading system. Graders were masked as to clinical data. Results Of 1825 participants with AIDS and no ocular opportunistic infections, 9.9% had intermediate-stage AMD. Risk factors included age, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6, 2.3, P <.001) for every decade of age; the prevalence of AMD ranged from 4.0% for participants 30-39 years old to 24.3% for participants =60 years old. Other risk factors included the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk groups of injection drug use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9, P <.001) or heterosexual contact (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8, P =.001). Compared with the HIV-uninfected population in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study, there was an approximate 4-fold increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD. Conclusions Patients with AIDS have an increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD compared with that found in a non-HIV-infected cohort evaluated with similar methods. This increased prevalence is consistent with the increased prevalence of other age-related diseases in antiretroviral-treated, immune-restored, HIV-infected persons when compared to non-HIV-infected persons.
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