Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya

Nelly Mugo, Sufia Dadabhai, Rebecca Bunnell, John Williamson, Eddas Bennett, Isaack Baya, Nelly Akinyi, Ibrahim Mohamed, Reinhard Kaiser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. Methods: KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. Results: Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90% completed an interview and 80% consented to testing. In all, 35% were infected with HSV-2, of which 42% were women and 26% were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7% to 34% in women and 3% to 14% in men. Among couples, 30% were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21% were discordant, and 49% were concordant-negative. In all, 81% of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16% among those with HSV-2 and 2% among those without HSV-2. Women with circumcised partners had an HSV-2 prevalence of 39% compared to 77% of women with uncircumcised partners. Conclusions: One-third of Kenyans were HSV-2 infected. HIV-1 infection, age, female sex, and lack of male circumcision were population-level predictors for HSV-2 infection. Targeted prevention interventions are needed, including an effective vaccine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1059-1066
Number of pages8
JournalSexually Transmitted Diseases
Volume38
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Human Herpesvirus 2
Kenya
Virus Diseases
Coinfection
HIV
Population
Surveys and Questionnaires
Interviews
Male Circumcision
Syphilis
HIV-1
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya. / Mugo, Nelly; Dadabhai, Sufia; Bunnell, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Bennett, Eddas; Baya, Isaack; Akinyi, Nelly; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Kaiser, Reinhard.

In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 38, No. 11, 11.2011, p. 1059-1066.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mugo, Nelly ; Dadabhai, Sufia ; Bunnell, Rebecca ; Williamson, John ; Bennett, Eddas ; Baya, Isaack ; Akinyi, Nelly ; Mohamed, Ibrahim ; Kaiser, Reinhard. / Prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, human immunodeficiency virus/herpes simplex virus type 2 coinfection, and associated risk factors in a national, population-based survey in Kenya. In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2011 ; Vol. 38, No. 11. pp. 1059-1066.
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abstract = "Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a known biologic cofactor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and acquisition. The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007 provided Kenya's first nationally representative estimate of HSV-2 prevalence and risk factors. Methods: KAIS was a household serosurvey among women and men aged 15 to 64 years. The survey included a behavioral interview and serum testing for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections. Results were weighted for sampling design and nonresponse. Results: Of 19,840 eligible individuals, 90{\%} completed an interview and 80{\%} consented to testing. In all, 35{\%} were infected with HSV-2, of which 42{\%} were women and 26{\%} were men. Between 15 and 24 years of age, HSV-2 prevalence increased from 7{\%} to 34{\%} in women and 3{\%} to 14{\%} in men. Among couples, 30{\%} were HSV-2 concordant-positive, 21{\%} were discordant, and 49{\%} were concordant-negative. In all, 81{\%} of HIV-infected persons were coinfected with HSV-2. HIV prevalence was 16{\%} among those with HSV-2 and 2{\%} among those without HSV-2. Women with circumcised partners had an HSV-2 prevalence of 39{\%} compared to 77{\%} of women with uncircumcised partners. Conclusions: One-third of Kenyans were HSV-2 infected. HIV-1 infection, age, female sex, and lack of male circumcision were population-level predictors for HSV-2 infection. Targeted prevention interventions are needed, including an effective vaccine.",
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AU - Bunnell, Rebecca

AU - Williamson, John

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AU - Akinyi, Nelly

AU - Mohamed, Ibrahim

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