OBJECTIVE- Clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent among people with diabetes. However, there is little information regarding the prevalence of subclinical CVD and its relation to clinical CVD in diabetes and in the glucose disorders that precede diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study, aged S65 years (n = 5, 888), underwent vascular and metabolic testing. Individuals with known disease in the coronary, cerebral, or peripheral circulations were considered to have clinical disease. Those without any clinical disease in whom CVD was detected by ultrasonography, electrocardiography, or ankle arm index in any of the three vascular beds were considered to have isolated subclinical disease. RESULTS- Approximately 30% of the cohort had clinical disease, and ∼60% of the remainder had isolated subclinical disease. In those with normal glucose status, isolated subclinical disease made up most of the total CVD. With increasing glucose severity, the proportion of total CVD that was clinical disease increased; 75% of men and 66% of women with normal fasting glucose status had either clinical or subclinical CVD. Among those with known diabetes, the prevalence was -88% (odds ratio [OR] 2.46 for men and 4.22 for women, P < 0.0001). There were intermediate prevalences and ORs for those with impaired fasting glucose status and newly diagnosed diabetes. CONCLUSIONS- Isolated subclinical CVD is common among older adults. Glucose disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of total CVD and an increased proportion of clinical disease relative to subclinical disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing