Prevalence of classic, MLB-clade and VA-clade Astroviruses in Kenya and the Gambia Emerging viruses

Caroline T. Meyer, Irma K. Bauer, Martin Antonio, Mitchell Adeyemi, Debasish Saha, Joseph O. Oundo, John B. Ochieng, Richard Omore, O. Colin Stine, David Wang, Lori R. Holtz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Infectious diarrhea leads to significant mortality in children, with 40 % of these deaths occurring in Africa. Classic human astroviruses are a well-established etiology of diarrhea. In recent years, seven novel astroviruses have been discovered (MLB1, MLB2, MLB3, VA1/HMO-C, VA2/HMO-B, VA3/HMO-A, VA4); however, there have been few studies on their prevalence or potential association with diarrhea. Methods: To investigate the prevalence and diversity of these classic and recently described astroviruses in a pediatric population, a case-control study was performed. Nine hundred and forty nine stools were previously collected from cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and matched controls of patients less than 5 years of age in Kenya and The Gambia. RT-PCR screening was performed using pan-astrovirus primers. Results: Astroviruses were present in 9.9 % of all stool samples. MLB3 was the most common astrovirus with a prevalence of 2.6 %. Two subtypes of MLB3 were detected that varied based on location in Africa. In this case-control study, Astrovirus MLB1 was associated with diarrhea in Kenya, whereas Astrovirus MLB3 was associated with the control state in The Gambia. Classic human astrovirus was not associated with diarrhea in this study. Unexpectedly, astroviruses with high similarity to Canine Astrovirus and Avian Nephritis Virus 1 and 2 were also found in one case of diarrhea and two control stools respectively. Conclusions: Astroviruses including novel MLB- and VA-clade members are commonly found in pediatric stools in Kenya and The Gambia. The most recently discovered astrovirus, MLB3, was the most prevalent and was found more commonly in control stools in The Gambia, while astrovirus MLB1 was associated with diarrhea in Kenya. Furthermore, a distinct subtype of MLB3 was noted, as well as 3 unanticipated avian or canine astroviruses in the human stool samples. As a result of a broadly reactive PCR screen for astroviruses, new insight was gained regarding the epidemiology of astroviruses in Africa, where a large proportion of diarrheal morbidity and mortality occur.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number78
JournalVirology Journal
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 15 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Gambia
Kenya
Diarrhea
Viruses
Mamastrovirus
Health Maintenance Organizations
Avastrovirus
Canidae
Case-Control Studies
Pediatrics
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Child Mortality
Epidemiology
Morbidity
Mortality

Keywords

  • Astrovirus
  • Diarrhea
  • Gastroenteritis
  • MLB
  • VA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Meyer, C. T., Bauer, I. K., Antonio, M., Adeyemi, M., Saha, D., Oundo, J. O., ... Holtz, L. R. (2015). Prevalence of classic, MLB-clade and VA-clade Astroviruses in Kenya and the Gambia Emerging viruses. Virology Journal, 12(1), [78]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-015-0299-z

Prevalence of classic, MLB-clade and VA-clade Astroviruses in Kenya and the Gambia Emerging viruses. / Meyer, Caroline T.; Bauer, Irma K.; Antonio, Martin; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Saha, Debasish; Oundo, Joseph O.; Ochieng, John B.; Omore, Richard; Stine, O. Colin; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R.

In: Virology Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, 78, 15.05.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Meyer, CT, Bauer, IK, Antonio, M, Adeyemi, M, Saha, D, Oundo, JO, Ochieng, JB, Omore, R, Stine, OC, Wang, D & Holtz, LR 2015, 'Prevalence of classic, MLB-clade and VA-clade Astroviruses in Kenya and the Gambia Emerging viruses', Virology Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, 78. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12985-015-0299-z
Meyer, Caroline T. ; Bauer, Irma K. ; Antonio, Martin ; Adeyemi, Mitchell ; Saha, Debasish ; Oundo, Joseph O. ; Ochieng, John B. ; Omore, Richard ; Stine, O. Colin ; Wang, David ; Holtz, Lori R. / Prevalence of classic, MLB-clade and VA-clade Astroviruses in Kenya and the Gambia Emerging viruses. In: Virology Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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