Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru

CRONICAS Cohort Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. Methods: We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 70%. Results: Overall prevalence of COPD was 6.0% (95% CI 5.1%-6.8%) but with marked variation across sites: 3.6% in semi-urban Tumbes, 6.1% in urban Puno, 6.2% in Lima, and 9.9% in rural Puno (p < 0.001). Population attributable risks (PARs) of COPD due to smoking ≥10 pack-years were less than 10% for all sites, consistent with a low prevalence of daily smoking (3.3%). Rather, we found that PARs of COPD varied by setting. In Lima, for example, the highest PARs were attributed to post-treatment tuberculosis (16% and 22% for men and women, respectively). In rural Puno, daily biomass fuel for cooking among women was associated with COPD (prevalence ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.02-4.81) and the PAR of COPD due to daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was 55%. Conclusions: The burden of COPD in Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number40
JournalRespiratory research
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 18 2015

Keywords

  • Biomass fuels
  • COPD
  • Chronic disease
  • Peru
  • Population studies
  • Respiratory disease
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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