Prevalence of and sex disparities in posttraumatic stress disorder in an internally displaced Sri Lankan population 6 months after the 2004 Tsunami.

Padmini Ranasinghe, Becca R. Levy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: When the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami suddenly hit unsuspecting coastal populations in Sri Lanka, it inflicted unprecedented devastation including 35,000 deaths and 500,000 people displaced. Evaluating the psychological impact of this natural disaster provides valuable insights into planning interventions and disaster preparedness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 264 adult males and females > or =16 years old living in temporary shelters housing tsunami survivors at 6 months. Interviewer-administered structured interviews were conducted to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its risk factors. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97%. Of the subjects, 56% met criteria for symptoms of PTSD, with females at 64% and males at 42%. Females had at least twice the risk of experiencing PTSD (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.76). This sex difference persisted after adjusting for age, marital status, being a parent, loss of family members, amount of social support, education level, and level of depression (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD (OR 7.19, 95% CI 3.83-13.52). CONCLUSIONS: In this directly affected population, a majority met criteria for PTSD, indicating a significant long-term public health burden. The findings also confirm that females are at much higher risk for PTSD than males, suggesting that special mental health efforts should be targeted at women exposed to trauma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Volume1
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2007

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Tsunamis
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Population
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Disaster Planning
Interviews
Depression
Indian Ocean
Sri Lanka
Marital Status
Disasters
Sex Characteristics
Social Support
Survivors
Mental Health
Public Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Psychology
Education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{d19c503113534ec0accc2870d02e751a,
title = "Prevalence of and sex disparities in posttraumatic stress disorder in an internally displaced Sri Lankan population 6 months after the 2004 Tsunami.",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: When the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami suddenly hit unsuspecting coastal populations in Sri Lanka, it inflicted unprecedented devastation including 35,000 deaths and 500,000 people displaced. Evaluating the psychological impact of this natural disaster provides valuable insights into planning interventions and disaster preparedness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 264 adult males and females > or =16 years old living in temporary shelters housing tsunami survivors at 6 months. Interviewer-administered structured interviews were conducted to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its risk factors. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97{\%}. Of the subjects, 56{\%} met criteria for symptoms of PTSD, with females at 64{\%} and males at 42{\%}. Females had at least twice the risk of experiencing PTSD (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.76). This sex difference persisted after adjusting for age, marital status, being a parent, loss of family members, amount of social support, education level, and level of depression (OR 2.14, 95{\%} CI 1.21-3.80). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD (OR 7.19, 95{\%} CI 3.83-13.52). CONCLUSIONS: In this directly affected population, a majority met criteria for PTSD, indicating a significant long-term public health burden. The findings also confirm that females are at much higher risk for PTSD than males, suggesting that special mental health efforts should be targeted at women exposed to trauma.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: When the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami suddenly hit unsuspecting coastal populations in Sri Lanka, it inflicted unprecedented devastation including 35,000 deaths and 500,000 people displaced. Evaluating the psychological impact of this natural disaster provides valuable insights into planning interventions and disaster preparedness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 264 adult males and females > or =16 years old living in temporary shelters housing tsunami survivors at 6 months. Interviewer-administered structured interviews were conducted to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its risk factors. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97%. Of the subjects, 56% met criteria for symptoms of PTSD, with females at 64% and males at 42%. Females had at least twice the risk of experiencing PTSD (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.76). This sex difference persisted after adjusting for age, marital status, being a parent, loss of family members, amount of social support, education level, and level of depression (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD (OR 7.19, 95% CI 3.83-13.52). CONCLUSIONS: In this directly affected population, a majority met criteria for PTSD, indicating a significant long-term public health burden. The findings also confirm that females are at much higher risk for PTSD than males, suggesting that special mental health efforts should be targeted at women exposed to trauma.

AB - BACKGROUND: When the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami suddenly hit unsuspecting coastal populations in Sri Lanka, it inflicted unprecedented devastation including 35,000 deaths and 500,000 people displaced. Evaluating the psychological impact of this natural disaster provides valuable insights into planning interventions and disaster preparedness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 264 adult males and females > or =16 years old living in temporary shelters housing tsunami survivors at 6 months. Interviewer-administered structured interviews were conducted to measure posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its risk factors. RESULTS: The participation rate was 97%. Of the subjects, 56% met criteria for symptoms of PTSD, with females at 64% and males at 42%. Females had at least twice the risk of experiencing PTSD (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.76). This sex difference persisted after adjusting for age, marital status, being a parent, loss of family members, amount of social support, education level, and level of depression (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD (OR 7.19, 95% CI 3.83-13.52). CONCLUSIONS: In this directly affected population, a majority met criteria for PTSD, indicating a significant long-term public health burden. The findings also confirm that females are at much higher risk for PTSD than males, suggesting that special mental health efforts should be targeted at women exposed to trauma.

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