Prevalence and correlates of marijuana use among HIV-seropositive and seronegative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013

Chukwuemeka N. Okafor, Robert L. Cook, Xinguang Chen, Pamela Surkan, James T. Becker, Steve Shoptaw, Eileen Martin, Michael W. Plankey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Marijuana use is common among HIV+ individuals, but few studies have examined long-term trends in prevalence and correlates of use. Methods: We evaluated trends (1984–2013) in the annual prevalence of current (past 6-month use) and daily (among current users) marijuana use and determined correlates of use among 2742 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 3172 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios of marijuana use separately for the men who were enrolled before 2001 (early-cohort) and after 2001 (late-cohort). Results: Over the 29 years of the study, the prevalence of current marijuana use declined significantly, whereas daily use among users increased among all men in the early and late-cohorts. A HIV+ status was associated with higher prevalence of marijuana use among the men in the early-cohort (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.42, 1.64, p = <0.0001), but not in the men in the late-cohort (aPR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, p = 0.1424). Alcohol use and cigarette smoking were being positively associated with marijuana use. Conclusions: Although the annual prevalence of current marijuana use decreased significantly over time in the MACS, daily use among users increased significantly. Further, among the HIV+ men, our study did not show clinically significant adverse effects of marijuana use on highly active antiretroviral therapy use, CD4+ count, or HIV viral load.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Nov 5 2016

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Cannabis
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Cohort Studies
HIV
Confidence Intervals
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Viral Load
Cross-Sectional Studies
Smoking
Alcohols

Keywords

  • correlates
  • HIV positive and HIV negative
  • Marijuana
  • men who have sex with men
  • prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Prevalence and correlates of marijuana use among HIV-seropositive and seronegative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013. / Okafor, Chukwuemeka N.; Cook, Robert L.; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela; Becker, James T.; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W.

In: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 05.11.2016, p. 1-11.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Okafor, Chukwuemeka N. ; Cook, Robert L. ; Chen, Xinguang ; Surkan, Pamela ; Becker, James T. ; Shoptaw, Steve ; Martin, Eileen ; Plankey, Michael W. / Prevalence and correlates of marijuana use among HIV-seropositive and seronegative men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984–2013. In: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 2016 ; pp. 1-11.
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abstract = "Background: Marijuana use is common among HIV+ individuals, but few studies have examined long-term trends in prevalence and correlates of use. Methods: We evaluated trends (1984–2013) in the annual prevalence of current (past 6-month use) and daily (among current users) marijuana use and determined correlates of use among 2742 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 3172 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios of marijuana use separately for the men who were enrolled before 2001 (early-cohort) and after 2001 (late-cohort). Results: Over the 29 years of the study, the prevalence of current marijuana use declined significantly, whereas daily use among users increased among all men in the early and late-cohorts. A HIV+ status was associated with higher prevalence of marijuana use among the men in the early-cohort (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.53, 95{\%} confidence interval [CI]:1.42, 1.64, p = <0.0001), but not in the men in the late-cohort (aPR = 0.90, 95{\%} CI: 0.79, 1.03, p = 0.1424). Alcohol use and cigarette smoking were being positively associated with marijuana use. Conclusions: Although the annual prevalence of current marijuana use decreased significantly over time in the MACS, daily use among users increased significantly. Further, among the HIV+ men, our study did not show clinically significant adverse effects of marijuana use on highly active antiretroviral therapy use, CD4+ count, or HIV viral load.",
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AU - Chen, Xinguang

AU - Surkan, Pamela

AU - Becker, James T.

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AB - Background: Marijuana use is common among HIV+ individuals, but few studies have examined long-term trends in prevalence and correlates of use. Methods: We evaluated trends (1984–2013) in the annual prevalence of current (past 6-month use) and daily (among current users) marijuana use and determined correlates of use among 2742 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 3172 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios of marijuana use separately for the men who were enrolled before 2001 (early-cohort) and after 2001 (late-cohort). Results: Over the 29 years of the study, the prevalence of current marijuana use declined significantly, whereas daily use among users increased among all men in the early and late-cohorts. A HIV+ status was associated with higher prevalence of marijuana use among the men in the early-cohort (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.42, 1.64, p = <0.0001), but not in the men in the late-cohort (aPR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, p = 0.1424). Alcohol use and cigarette smoking were being positively associated with marijuana use. Conclusions: Although the annual prevalence of current marijuana use decreased significantly over time in the MACS, daily use among users increased significantly. Further, among the HIV+ men, our study did not show clinically significant adverse effects of marijuana use on highly active antiretroviral therapy use, CD4+ count, or HIV viral load.

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