Prevalence and correlates of cocaine physical dependence subtypes using the DSM-IV in outpatients receiving opioid agonist medication

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between endorsement of physiological dependence to cocaine (i.e., tolerance and/or withdrawal) and lifetime, and current problem severity (i.e., psychiatric and substance use disorders, medical and psychosocial problems) for opioid and cocaine dependent individuals (n = 719) newly admitted to a treatment program using opioid-agonist medication. All participants completed the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) (SCID-IV) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Participants were first classified into physiological (n = 549) versus non-physiological (n = 170) cocaine dependence groups for one set of analyses and then categorized into one of four groups for further analyses: (1) tolerance only (n = 215), (2) tolerance plus withdrawal (n = 279), (3) withdrawal only (n = 55) or (4) no physiological dependence (n = 170). Those participants who endorsed physiological dependence reported higher rates of lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders, higher rates of current drug use and more current problems. The four-group analyses showed that endorsement of withdrawal, with or without tolerance, was associated with the most severe problems. These findings suggest that physiological dependence to cocaine (particularly the presence of withdrawal) is a marker for a more severe substance use disorder and higher rates of comorbid psychopathology and other problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-32
Number of pages10
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume79
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

Fingerprint

Cocaine-Related Disorders
Cocaine
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
withdrawal
Opioid Analgesics
medication
Outpatients
tolerance
Substance-Related Disorders
Psychiatry
Group
psychopathology
Psychopathology
addiction
drug use
diagnostic
Interviews
Pharmaceutical Preparations
interview

Keywords

  • Cocaine dependence
  • Drug abuse
  • Methadone treatment
  • Physiological dependence
  • Substance use diagnoses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Toxicology
  • Health(social science)

Cite this

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title = "Prevalence and correlates of cocaine physical dependence subtypes using the DSM-IV in outpatients receiving opioid agonist medication",
abstract = "The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between endorsement of physiological dependence to cocaine (i.e., tolerance and/or withdrawal) and lifetime, and current problem severity (i.e., psychiatric and substance use disorders, medical and psychosocial problems) for opioid and cocaine dependent individuals (n = 719) newly admitted to a treatment program using opioid-agonist medication. All participants completed the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) (SCID-IV) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Participants were first classified into physiological (n = 549) versus non-physiological (n = 170) cocaine dependence groups for one set of analyses and then categorized into one of four groups for further analyses: (1) tolerance only (n = 215), (2) tolerance plus withdrawal (n = 279), (3) withdrawal only (n = 55) or (4) no physiological dependence (n = 170). Those participants who endorsed physiological dependence reported higher rates of lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders, higher rates of current drug use and more current problems. The four-group analyses showed that endorsement of withdrawal, with or without tolerance, was associated with the most severe problems. These findings suggest that physiological dependence to cocaine (particularly the presence of withdrawal) is a marker for a more severe substance use disorder and higher rates of comorbid psychopathology and other problems.",
keywords = "Cocaine dependence, Drug abuse, Methadone treatment, Physiological dependence, Substance use diagnoses",
author = "Elizabeth Disney and Michael Kidorf and King, {Van L.} and Neufeld, {Karin Jane} and Ken Kolodner and Robert Brooner",
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T1 - Prevalence and correlates of cocaine physical dependence subtypes using the DSM-IV in outpatients receiving opioid agonist medication

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AU - Kidorf, Michael

AU - King, Van L.

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AU - Kolodner, Ken

AU - Brooner, Robert

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AB - The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relationship between endorsement of physiological dependence to cocaine (i.e., tolerance and/or withdrawal) and lifetime, and current problem severity (i.e., psychiatric and substance use disorders, medical and psychosocial problems) for opioid and cocaine dependent individuals (n = 719) newly admitted to a treatment program using opioid-agonist medication. All participants completed the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) (SCID-IV) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Participants were first classified into physiological (n = 549) versus non-physiological (n = 170) cocaine dependence groups for one set of analyses and then categorized into one of four groups for further analyses: (1) tolerance only (n = 215), (2) tolerance plus withdrawal (n = 279), (3) withdrawal only (n = 55) or (4) no physiological dependence (n = 170). Those participants who endorsed physiological dependence reported higher rates of lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders, higher rates of current drug use and more current problems. The four-group analyses showed that endorsement of withdrawal, with or without tolerance, was associated with the most severe problems. These findings suggest that physiological dependence to cocaine (particularly the presence of withdrawal) is a marker for a more severe substance use disorder and higher rates of comorbid psychopathology and other problems.

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