A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to determine the impact of neutropenia on the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with myelodysplasia (MDS). Among 291 consecutive patients, 178 (61%) had absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) <1500/μL and 113 (39%) had ANCs ≥1500/μL within 2 weeks before HSCT. Neutropenic patients more often had poor-risk karyotypes (34% versus 12%, P < .0001) and high-risk International Prognostic Scoring System scores (37% veresus 18%, P = .0006). After HSCT, the rate of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria and invasive fungal infections was significantly increased among neutropenic patients (rate ratio [RR] 1.77, P = .02 and RR = 2.56, P = .03, respectively), whereas infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria were not affected (RR 1.33, P = .53). The hazards of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62 [1.1-2.4], P = .01), overall mortality (HR = 1.55 [1.1-2.1], P = 0.007), and infection-related mortality (HR = 2.22 [1.2-4.2], P = .01) were increased in neutropenic patients, whereas relapse, engraftment, and graft-versus-host-disease were not affected. After adjusting for cytogenetic risk and marrow myeloblast percentages, neutropenic patients remained at significant hazard for infection-related mortality (HR = 1.94 [1.0-3.8], P = .05), but not for overall mortality or NRM. We propose that intensified strategies to prevent infections should be implemented in MDS patients with preexisting neutropenia who undergo HSCT.
- Stem cell transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas