Purpose: Hypermethylation of the CpG island at the promoter region of the π-class glutathione S-transferase gene (GSTP1) is the most common somatic genome abnormality in human prostate cancer. We evaluated circulating cell-free DNA GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation as a prognostic biomarker in the serum of men with prostate cancer. Experimental Design: Prostate cancer DNA GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation was detected using a restriction endonuclease quantitative PCR technique. We analyzed preoperative serum from 85 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and from 35 men with a negative prostate biopsy. We then assayed preoperative serum from a data set of 55 pairs of men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy, matched for Gleason score, comprising 55 men suffering prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence (median, 2 years) and 55 men who were free of disease at last follow-up (median, 3 years). The association of serum GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation and PSA recurrence was determined. Results: Circulating cell-free DNA with GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation was not detected in the serum of men with a negative prostate biopsy but was detected in 12% of men with clinically localized disease and 28% of men with metastatic cancer (P = 0.003). In the matched data set, eight men (15%) who developed PSA recurrence were positive for DNA with GSTP1 CpG hypermethylation, whereas no patient who was free of disease was positive for GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation (McNemar test, χ2 = 6.1, P = 0.01). In a multivariable analysis that accounted for recognized prognostic factors, the presence of serum DNA with GTSP1 CpG island hypermethylation was the most significant predictor of PSA recurrence (hazard ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2, 8.8; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study suggests that GSTP1 CpG island hypermethylation may be an important DNA-based prognostic serum biomarker for prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research