Preoperative sensitivity and specificity for early-stage ovarian cancer when combining cancer antigen CA-125II, CA 15-3, CA 72-4, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor using mixtures of multivariate normal distributions

Steven J. Skates, Nora Horick, Yinhua Yu, Feng Ji Xu, Andrew Berchuck, Laura J. Havrilesky, Henk W.A. De Bruijn, Ate G.J. Van Der Zee, Robert P. Woolas, Ian J. Jacobs, Zhen Zhang, Robert C. Bast

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: In CA-125-based ovarian cancer screening trials, overall specificity and screening sensitivity of ultrasound after an elevated CA-125 exceeded 99.6% and 70%, respectively, thereby yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) exceeding 10%. However, sensitivity for early-stage disease was only 40%. This study aims to increase preoperative sensitivity for early-stage ovarian cancer while maintaining the annual referral rate to ultrasound at 2% by combining information across CA-125II, CA 15-3, CA 72-4, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). For direct comparisons between marker panels, all sensitivity results correspond to a 98% fixed first-line specificity (referral rate 2%). Patients and Methods: Logistic regression, classification tree, and mixture discriminant analysis (MDA) models were fit to a training data set of preoperative serum measurements (63 patients, 126 healthy controls) from one center. Estimates from the training set applied to an independent validation set (60 stage I to II patients, 98 healthy controls) from two other centers provided unbiased estimates of sensitivity. Results Preoperative sensitivities for early-stage disease of the optimal panels were 45% for CA-125II; 67% for CA-125II and CA 72-4; 70% for CA-125II, CA 72-4, and M-CSF; and 68% for all four markers (latter two results using MDA). Conclusion Efficiently combining information on CA-125II, CA 72-4, and M-CSF significantly increased preoperative early-stage sensitivity from 45% with CA-125II alone to 70%, while maintaining 98% first-line specificity. Screening trials with these markers using MDA followed by referral to ultrasound may maintain previously high levels of specificity and PPV, while significantly increasing early-stage screening sensitivity. MDA is a useful, biologically justified method for combining biomarkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4059-4066
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume22
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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