Prenatal Risk Factors and Perinatal and Postnatal Outcomes Associated with Maternal Opioid Exposure in an Urban, Low-Income, Multiethnic US Population

Romuladus E. Azuine, Yuelong Ji, Hsing Yuan Chang, Yoona Kim, Hongkai Ji, Jessica Dibari, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Gopal K. Singh, Colleen Pearson, Barry Zuckerman, Pamela J. Surkan, Xiaobin Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking. Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, an urban, low-income, multiethnic cohort that enrolled mother-newborn pairs at birth at Boston Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts) starting in 1998, and a subset of children were prospectively observed at Boston Medical Center pediatric primary care and subspecialty clinics from birth to age 21 years. Data analysis began in June 2018 and was completed in May 2019. Exposures: In utero opioid exposure was defined as maternal self-reported opioid use and/or clinical diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy outcomes, postnatal child physical health, and major neurodevelopmental disabilities, documented in maternal and child medical records. Results: This study included 8509 Boston Birth Cohort mother-newborn pairs for prenatal and perinatal analyses. Of those, 3153 children continued to receive pediatric care at Boston Medical Center and were included in assessing postnatal outcomes. Overall, 454 of the 8509 children (5.3%) in the Boston Birth Cohort had in utero opioid exposure. At birth, opioid exposure was associated with higher risks of fetal growth restriction (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.41-2.47) and preterm birth (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.86). Opioid exposure was associated with increased risks of lack of expected physiological development (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.79) and conduct disorder/emotional disturbance (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.77) among preschool-aged children. In school-aged children, opioid exposure was associated with a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.42-4.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample of urban, high-risk, low-income mother-child pairs, in utero opioid exposure was significantly associated with adverse short-term and long-term outcomes across developmental stages, including higher rates of physical and neurodevelopmental disorders in affected children. Efforts to prevent the opioid epidemic and mitigate its health consequences would benefit from more intergenerational research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJAMA Network Open
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Maternal Exposure
Opioid Analgesics
Mothers
Population
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome
Parturition
Odds Ratio
Newborn Infant
Pediatrics
Conduct Disorder
Affective Symptoms
Premature Birth
Health
Preschool Children
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Pregnancy Outcome
Fetal Development
Medical Records
Longitudinal Studies
Pregnant Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Prenatal Risk Factors and Perinatal and Postnatal Outcomes Associated with Maternal Opioid Exposure in an Urban, Low-Income, Multiethnic US Population. / Azuine, Romuladus E.; Ji, Yuelong; Chang, Hsing Yuan; Kim, Yoona; Ji, Hongkai; Dibari, Jessica; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Singh, Gopal K.; Pearson, Colleen; Zuckerman, Barry; Surkan, Pamela J.; Wang, Xiaobin.

In: JAMA Network Open, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking. Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, an urban, low-income, multiethnic cohort that enrolled mother-newborn pairs at birth at Boston Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts) starting in 1998, and a subset of children were prospectively observed at Boston Medical Center pediatric primary care and subspecialty clinics from birth to age 21 years. Data analysis began in June 2018 and was completed in May 2019. Exposures: In utero opioid exposure was defined as maternal self-reported opioid use and/or clinical diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy outcomes, postnatal child physical health, and major neurodevelopmental disabilities, documented in maternal and child medical records. Results: This study included 8509 Boston Birth Cohort mother-newborn pairs for prenatal and perinatal analyses. Of those, 3153 children continued to receive pediatric care at Boston Medical Center and were included in assessing postnatal outcomes. Overall, 454 of the 8509 children (5.3{\%}) in the Boston Birth Cohort had in utero opioid exposure. At birth, opioid exposure was associated with higher risks of fetal growth restriction (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95{\%} CI, 1.41-2.47) and preterm birth (OR, 1.49; 95{\%} CI, 1.19-1.86). Opioid exposure was associated with increased risks of lack of expected physiological development (OR, 1.80; 95{\%} CI, 1.17-2.79) and conduct disorder/emotional disturbance (OR, 2.13; 95{\%} CI, 1.20-3.77) among preschool-aged children. In school-aged children, opioid exposure was associated with a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 2.55; 95{\%} CI, 1.42-4.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample of urban, high-risk, low-income mother-child pairs, in utero opioid exposure was significantly associated with adverse short-term and long-term outcomes across developmental stages, including higher rates of physical and neurodevelopmental disorders in affected children. Efforts to prevent the opioid epidemic and mitigate its health consequences would benefit from more intergenerational research.",
author = "Azuine, {Romuladus E.} and Yuelong Ji and Chang, {Hsing Yuan} and Yoona Kim and Hongkai Ji and Jessica Dibari and Xiumei Hong and Guoying Wang and Singh, {Gopal K.} and Colleen Pearson and Barry Zuckerman and Surkan, {Pamela J.} and Xiaobin Wang",
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AU - Ji, Yuelong

AU - Chang, Hsing Yuan

AU - Kim, Yoona

AU - Ji, Hongkai

AU - Dibari, Jessica

AU - Hong, Xiumei

AU - Wang, Guoying

AU - Singh, Gopal K.

AU - Pearson, Colleen

AU - Zuckerman, Barry

AU - Surkan, Pamela J.

AU - Wang, Xiaobin

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N2 - Importance: The opioid epidemic increasingly affects pregnant women and developing fetuses, resulting in high rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome. However, longitudinal studies that prospectively observe newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome or with maternal opioid use and examine their long-term physical and neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking. Objective: To examine prenatal risk factors associated with maternal opioid use during pregnancy and the short-term and long-term health consequences on their children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, an urban, low-income, multiethnic cohort that enrolled mother-newborn pairs at birth at Boston Medical Center (Boston, Massachusetts) starting in 1998, and a subset of children were prospectively observed at Boston Medical Center pediatric primary care and subspecialty clinics from birth to age 21 years. Data analysis began in June 2018 and was completed in May 2019. Exposures: In utero opioid exposure was defined as maternal self-reported opioid use and/or clinical diagnosis of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pregnancy outcomes, postnatal child physical health, and major neurodevelopmental disabilities, documented in maternal and child medical records. Results: This study included 8509 Boston Birth Cohort mother-newborn pairs for prenatal and perinatal analyses. Of those, 3153 children continued to receive pediatric care at Boston Medical Center and were included in assessing postnatal outcomes. Overall, 454 of the 8509 children (5.3%) in the Boston Birth Cohort had in utero opioid exposure. At birth, opioid exposure was associated with higher risks of fetal growth restriction (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.41-2.47) and preterm birth (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.19-1.86). Opioid exposure was associated with increased risks of lack of expected physiological development (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.79) and conduct disorder/emotional disturbance (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.20-3.77) among preschool-aged children. In school-aged children, opioid exposure was associated with a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.42-4.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample of urban, high-risk, low-income mother-child pairs, in utero opioid exposure was significantly associated with adverse short-term and long-term outcomes across developmental stages, including higher rates of physical and neurodevelopmental disorders in affected children. Efforts to prevent the opioid epidemic and mitigate its health consequences would benefit from more intergenerational research.

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