Pregnancy, lactation, and menopause: how physiology and gender affect the toxicity of chemicals.

J. S. Roberts, E. K. Silbergeld

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

We explore ways in which biological events and nonbiological gender factors in women's lives can mediate the toxicity of chemicals to women. We examine the physiologic changes that accompany pregnancy, lactation, and menopause in order to discuss how these changes might influence the target organ dose and distribution of toxic chemicals within women's bodies. We suggest that the interactions between divalent metals and calcium metabolism and those between lipophilic chemicals and fat metabolism could modulate the toxicity of metallic and lipophilic toxins in women over the course of a lifetime. These hypotheses need careful research consideration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-355
Number of pages13
JournalThe Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York
Volume62
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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