Adolescents (13-24 years of age) account for more than one-fifth of new HIV diagnoses yearly, and the United States has one of the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy among high resource countries. However, there is limited information on the characteristics and outcomes of adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV) during pregnancy and differences with pregnancy in adults living with HIV. We performed a retrospective cohort study to compare demographic characteristics, HIV viral suppression, and pregnancy outcomes in adolescents (n = 90) as compared with adults (n = 250) in an urban HIV pregnancy clinic from 2003 to 2015. Seventy-one women overall were diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy (adolescents, 25/90; adults, 46/250). One-fifth of adolescents acquired HIV perinatally. Adolescents were more likely than adults to have unintended pregnancy (83.6% vs. 68.7%, p = 0.016) and were less likely to be virally suppressed at delivery (50.0% vs. 69.7% overall, p = 0.001; 48.0% vs. 78.2% in postuniversal antiretroviral therapy era, p = 0.007%). Over one-third of adolescents reported a history of any illicit substance use, and adolescents were more likely than adults to use marijuana during pregnancy (29.2% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.013). Adolescents were less likely to experience preterm labor (11.0% vs. 24.1%, p = 0.012) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (3.7% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.003). There was one case of maternal-fetal transmission, which occurred in an adult pregnancy. Despite the high rate of unintended pregnancy, one-third of adolescents were discharged without an identified contraception plan. We identify several opportunities for intervention to improve reproductive health outcomes in ALWHIV.
- Human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Infectious Diseases