Predictors of uptake and timeliness of newly introduced pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and of measles vaccine in rural Malawi: A population cohort study

Hazzie Mvula, Ellen Heinsbroek, Menard Chihana, Amelia C. Crampin, Storn Kabuluzi, Geoffrey Chirwa, Charles Mwansambo, Anthony Costello, Nigel A. Cunliffe, Robert S. Heyderman, Neil French, Naor Bar-Zeev, James Beard, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Carina King, Sonia Lewycka, Osamu Nakagomi, Umesh D. Parashar, Tambosi Phiri, Jacqueline E. TateJennifer R. Verani, Cynthia G. Whitney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods: Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results: Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36), 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion: Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0154997
JournalPLoS One
Volume11
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Rotavirus Vaccines
Measles Vaccine
Malawi
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Rotavirus
cohort studies
Cohort Studies
Vaccines
vaccines
Vaccination
Population
vaccination
Demography
Parturition
dosage
Conjugate Vaccines
Agriculture
demographic statistics
Time delay
Appointments and Schedules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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Predictors of uptake and timeliness of newly introduced pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and of measles vaccine in rural Malawi : A population cohort study. / Mvula, Hazzie; Heinsbroek, Ellen; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Beard, James; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; King, Carina; Lewycka, Sonia; Nakagomi, Osamu; Parashar, Umesh D.; Phiri, Tambosi; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Verani, Jennifer R.; Whitney, Cynthia G.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 11, No. 5, e0154997, 01.05.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mvula, H, Heinsbroek, E, Chihana, M, Crampin, AC, Kabuluzi, S, Chirwa, G, Mwansambo, C, Costello, A, Cunliffe, NA, Heyderman, RS, French, N, Bar-Zeev, N, Beard, J, Iturriza-Gomara, M, King, C, Lewycka, S, Nakagomi, O, Parashar, UD, Phiri, T, Tate, JE, Verani, JR & Whitney, CG 2016, 'Predictors of uptake and timeliness of newly introduced pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and of measles vaccine in rural Malawi: A population cohort study', PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 5, e0154997. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154997
Mvula, Hazzie ; Heinsbroek, Ellen ; Chihana, Menard ; Crampin, Amelia C. ; Kabuluzi, Storn ; Chirwa, Geoffrey ; Mwansambo, Charles ; Costello, Anthony ; Cunliffe, Nigel A. ; Heyderman, Robert S. ; French, Neil ; Bar-Zeev, Naor ; Beard, James ; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren ; King, Carina ; Lewycka, Sonia ; Nakagomi, Osamu ; Parashar, Umesh D. ; Phiri, Tambosi ; Tate, Jacqueline E. ; Verani, Jennifer R. ; Whitney, Cynthia G. / Predictors of uptake and timeliness of newly introduced pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and of measles vaccine in rural Malawi : A population cohort study. In: PLoS One. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 5.
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abstract = "Background: Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods: Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results: Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9{\%} for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4{\%} for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36), 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion: Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.",
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T1 - Predictors of uptake and timeliness of newly introduced pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, and of measles vaccine in rural Malawi

T2 - A population cohort study

AU - Mvula, Hazzie

AU - Heinsbroek, Ellen

AU - Chihana, Menard

AU - Crampin, Amelia C.

AU - Kabuluzi, Storn

AU - Chirwa, Geoffrey

AU - Mwansambo, Charles

AU - Costello, Anthony

AU - Cunliffe, Nigel A.

AU - Heyderman, Robert S.

AU - French, Neil

AU - Bar-Zeev, Naor

AU - Beard, James

AU - Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

AU - King, Carina

AU - Lewycka, Sonia

AU - Nakagomi, Osamu

AU - Parashar, Umesh D.

AU - Phiri, Tambosi

AU - Tate, Jacqueline E.

AU - Verani, Jennifer R.

AU - Whitney, Cynthia G.

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Background: Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods: Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results: Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36), 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion: Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

AB - Background: Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods: Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results: Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36), 19 days (IQR 8-36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion: Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

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