Predictors of predominant Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS-50)

H. Babaoglu, J. Li, D. Goldman, L. S. Magder, M. Petri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Aim: The Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS) is a potential treat to target goal in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients in LLDAS for more than half of the observation time have about a 50% lower risk of new organ damage and have reduced mortality. We identified predictors of being in LLDAS ≥50% of the observation time. Methods: A total of 2228 SLE patients who had at least three clinical visits were included. Percentage of time in LLDAS was calculated based on the proportion of days under observation. LLDAS-50 was defined as being in LLDAS for ≥50% of the observation time. We used the stepwise selection procedure in logistic regression to identify predictors of LLDAS-50. Results: A total of 1169 (52.5%) SLE patients, but only 37.6% of African Americans, achieved LLDAS-50. In the multivariable model, African American ethnicity, hypocomplementemia, serositis, renal activity, arthritis, anti-RNP, anti-dsDNA, vasculitis, malar rash, discoid rash, thrombocytopenia, and immunosuppressive use were negative predictors of LLDAS-50. Older age at diagnosis, longer disease duration, higher education level, and greater percentage of time taking hydroxychloroquine remained positive predictors of LLDAS-50. Conclusion: In this large cohort, only 52.5% achieved LLDAS-50. This proportion was even less in African Americans. A higher percentage of time taking hydroxychloroquine was a modifiable positive predictor of LLDAS-50. Anti-RNP, anti-dsDNA, and low complement were negatively associated with LLDAS-50. Our findings further emphasize the importance of inclusion of African Americans in clinical trials and hydroxychloroquine adherence in both clinical practice and clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1648-1655
Number of pages8
Issue number14
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Ethnicity
  • hydroxychloroquine
  • low disease activity state
  • systemic lupus erythematosus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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