Background Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have exercise intolerance due to left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, mitral regurgitation, and left ventricular dysfunction. We sought to study predictors of outcomes in HCM patients undergoing cardiopulmonary stress testing (CPT). Methods We studied 1,005 HCM patients (50 ± 14 years, 64% men, 77% on β-blockers) who underwent CPT with echocardiography. Clinical, echocardiographic, and exercise variables (peak oxygen consumption [VO2] and heart rate recovery [HRR] at first minute postexercise) were recorded. End point was a composite of death, appropriate defibrillator discharges, resuscitated sudden death, stroke, and heart failure admission. Results Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), postexercise LVOT gradient, and peak VO2 were 62% ± 6%, 92 ± 51 mm Hg, and 21 ± 6 mL kg-1 min-1, respectively. Despite 789 patients (78%) being in New York Heart Association classes I to II, only 8% achieved >100% age-gender predicted peak VO2, whereas 77% and 15% achieved 50% to 100% and 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96 [0.93-0.98]), normal vs abnormal HRR (HR 0.48 [0.32-0.73]), higher LVEF (HR 0.96 [0.93-0.98]), surgery (0.53 [0.33-0.83]), and atrial fibrillation (HR 1.65 [1.04-2.60]) were associated with outcomes (all P 2 and surgical relief of LVOT obstruction were associated with better outcomes, whereas abnormal HRR, atrial fibrillation, and lower LVEF were associated with worse outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine