Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is common among HIV-positive individuals, may contribute to the excess burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in this patient population; however, conventional clinical methods to detect AKI do not capture kidney injury sufficiently early to prevent irreversible damage. Further, large observational and interventional studies of AKI generally exclude HIV-positive persons in spite of their disproportionate risk. Methods: The Predictors of Acute Renal Injury Study (Paris) is a prospective observational cohort study among HIV-positive individuals established to determine the ability of candidate kidney injury biomarkers to predict future hospitalized clinical AKI, to characterize hospitalized subclinical AKI, and to discern the risk of progressive kidney disease following subclinical and clinical AKI. Among the candidate kidney injury markers, we will select the most promising to translate into a clinically viable, multiplex panel of urinary biomarkers which we will integrate with clinical factors to develop a model prognostic of risks for AKI and subsequent kidney function decline. This study has a targeted enrollment of 2000 participants. The overall follow-up of participants consists of two phases: 1) a 5-year active follow-up phase which involves serial evaluations at enrollment, annual clinic visits, and among participants who are hospitalized during this period, an evaluation at index hospitalization and 3 and 12 months post-hospitalization; and 2) a subsequent passive follow-up phase for the duration that the participant receives medical care at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Discussions: This study will serve as an important resource for future studies of AKI by establishing a repository with both ambulatory and inpatient biospecimens, a resource that is currently lacking in existing HIV clinical cohorts and studies of AKI. Upon completion of this study, the resulting prognostic model which will incorporate results from the multiplex HIV-AKI Risk Pane could serve as a pharmacodynamic endpoint for early phase therapeutic candidates for AKI.
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