Background The existing World Health Organization diagnostic algorithms for smear-negative TB perform poorly in HIV-infected individuals. New TB diagnostics such as urine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) could improve the accuracy and reduce delays in TB diagnosis in HIVinfected smear-negative presumptive TB. We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture- positivity among these patients. Methods This study was nested into a prospective evaluation of HIV-infected outpatients and inpatients clinically suspected to have TB who were screened by smear-microscopy on two spot sputum samples. Data on socio-demographics, clinical symptoms, antiretroviral therapy. CXR, CD4 count, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures and TB-LAM were collected. Logistic regression and conditional inference tree analysis were used to determine the most predictive indicators for MTB culture-positivity. Results Of the 418 smear-negative participants [female, 64%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years, median CD4 106 (IQR 22 - 298) cells/mm3], 96/418 (23%) were sputum and/ or blood culture- positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex. Abnormal CXR (aOR 3.68, 95% CI 1.76- 7.71, p=0.001) and positive urine TB-LAM (aOR 6.21, 95% CI 3.14-12.27, p< 0.001) were significantly associated with MTB culture-positivity. Previous TB treatment (aOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, p=0.049) reduced the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. A conditional inference tree analysis showed that positive urine TB-LAM and abnormal CXR were the most predictive indicators of MTB culture-positivity. A combination of urine TBLAM test and CXR had sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 86.1%respectively overall, and 70.8% and 84.1%respectively among those with CD4<100 cells/mm3. Conclusions A positive urine TB-LAM test and an abnormal CXR significantly predict MTB culture-positivity among smear-negative HIV-infected presumptive TB patients while previous TB treatment reduces the likelihood of a positive MTB culture. Validation studies to assess the performance of diagnostic algorithms that include urine TB-LAM in the diagnosis of smearnegative TB in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)