Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda

Lydia Nakiyingi, Willy Ssengooba, Damalie Nakanjako, Derek Armstrong, Molly Holshouser, Bruce J. Kirenga, Maunank Shah, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Moses L. Joloba, Jerrold J. Ellner, Susan E. Dorman, Yukari C. Manabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis lacks sensitivity in HIV-infected symptomatic patients and increases the likelihood that mycobacterial infections particularly disseminated TB will be missed; delays in diagnosis can be fatal. Given the duration for MTB growth in blood culture, clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia may improve early diagnosis of mycobacteremia. We describe the predictors and mortality outcome of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected sputum smear-negative presumptive TB patients in a high prevalence HIV/TB setting. Methods: Between January and November 2011, all consenting HIV-infected adults suspected to have TB (presumptive TB) were consecutively enrolled. Diagnostic assessment included sputum smear microscopy, urine Determine TB lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen test, mycobacterial sputum and blood cultures, chest X-ray, and CD4 cell counts in addition to clinical and socio-demographic data. Patients were followed for 12 months post-enrolment. Results: Of 394 sputum smear-negative participants [female, 63.7%; median age (IQR) 32 (28-39) years], 41/394 (10.4%) had positive mycobacterial blood cultures (mycobacteremia); all isolates were (MTB). The median CD4 cell count was significantly lower among patients with mycobacteremia when compared with those without (CD4 31 versus 122 cells/μL, p<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, male gender [OR 3.4, 95%CI (1.4-7.6), p=0.005], CD4 count <100 cells/μL [OR 3.1, 95% CI (1.1-8.6), p=0.030] and a positive lateral flow urine TB LAM antigen test [OR 15.3, 95%CI (5.7-41.1), p<0.001] were significantly associated with mycobacteremia. At 12 months of follow-up, a trend towards increased mortality was observed in patients that were MTB blood culture positive (35.3%) compared with those that were MTB blood culture negative (23.3%) (p=0.065). Conclusions: Mycobacteremia occurred in 10% of smear-negative patients and was associated with higher mortality compared with smear-negative patients without mycobacteremia. Advanced HIV disease (CD4<100 cells/mm3), male gender and positive lateral flow urine TB LAM test predicted mycobacteremia in HIV-infected smear-negative presumptive TB patients in this high prevalence TB/HIV setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number62
JournalBMC infectious diseases
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2015

Keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • HIV
  • LAM
  • Mortality
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • Predictors
  • Smear- negative
  • Sub-Saharan Africa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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