Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors associated with acute renal failure in total descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Methods: A total of 234 patients underwent thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm or total descending thoracic aneurysm repair between January 1991 and January 1994. Eighty-five women and 149 men were evaluated. The median age was 67 years (range 8 to 88 years). Seventy-seven patients had type I thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm, 99 had type II, 51 had type III or IV, and 7 had total descending thoracic aneurysm. Factors such as age, sex, aneurysm type, and visceral and distal aortic perfusion were examined with univariate fourfold table and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Acute renal failure, defined as an increase in serum creatinine by 1 mg/dl per day for two consecutive days after surgery, occurred in 41 (17.5%) of 234 patients. Thirty-six (15%) of 234 patients required dialysis. Twenty (49%) of 41 patients with acute renal failure died. Of the 21 survivors with renal failure, renal failure resolved in 18 (86%) within 30 days of surgery. The univariate odds ratio of death, given acute renal failure, was 6.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2 to 14.2, p < 00001). No significant association was found between the probability of acute renal failure and age, sex, hypertension, right renal artery reattachment, or renal bypass. Factors associated with increased risk of acute renal failure in multivariate analysis were visceral perfusion (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6 95%, CI 1.2 to 11.0, p < 0.02), left renal artery reattachment (OR = 4.4 95%, CI 1.6 to 11.9, p < 0.004), preoperative creatinine ≤2.8 mg/dl (OR = 10.3, 95% CI 12.0 to 411.8, p < 0.0001), and simple clamp technique (OR = 3.4 95%, CI 1.07 to 10.76, p < 0.04). Direct univariate correlation was seen between preoperative creatinine and acute renal failure (OR = 3.2 per mg/dl increase, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Postoperative acute renal failure after thoracoabdominal and total descending thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery is associated with preoperative creatinine level, visceral perfusion, left renal artery reattachment, and simple cross-clamp technique.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine