Objective: To investigate whether volumetric enhancement on baseline MRI and volumetric oil deposition on unenhanced CT would predict HCC necrosis and response post-TACE. Method: Of 115 retrospective HCC patients (173 lesions) who underwent cTACE, a subset of 53 HCC patients underwent liver transplant (LT). Semiautomatic volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed on dual imaging to assess the accuracy of predicting tumour necrosis after TACE in the whole cohort and at pathology in the LT group. Predicted percentage tumour necrosis is defined as 100 % - (%baseline MRI enhancement - %CT oil deposition). Results: Mean predicted tumour necrosis by dual imaging modalities was 61.5 % ± 31.6%; mean percentage tumour necrosis on follow-up MRI was 63.8 % ± 31.5 %. In the LT group, mean predicted tumour necrosis by dual imaging modalities was 77.6 % ± 27.2 %; mean percentage necrosis at pathology was 78.7 % ± 31.5 %. There was a strong significant correlation between predicted tumour necrosis and volumetric necrosis on MRI follow-up (r = 0.889, p<0.001) and between predicted tumour necrosis and pathological necrosis (r = 0.871, p<0.001). Conclusion: Volumetric pre-TACE enhancement on MRI and post-TACE oil deposition in CT may accurately predict necrosis in treated HCC lesions. Key Points: • Imaging-based tumour response can assist in therapeutic decisions.• Lipiodol retention as carrier agent in cTACE is a tumour necrosis biomarker.• Predicting tumour necrosis with dual imaging potentially obviates immediate post-treatment MRI.• Predicting tumour necrosis would facilitate further therapeutic decisions in HCC post-cTACE.• Pre-TACE MRI and post-TACE CT predict necrosis in treated HCC.
- Carcinoma, hepatocellular/pathology
- Carcinoma, hepatocellular/therapy
- Chemoembolization, therapeutic
- Imaging, three-dimensional
- Liver transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging