Objectives: The aim of this study was to derive and validate a practical risk model to predict death within 4 years of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Background: ICDs for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death improve survival, but recent data suggest that a patient subset with high mortality and minimal ICD benefit may be identified. Methods: Data from a development cohort (n = 17,991) and validation cohort (n = 27,893) of Medicare beneficiaries receiving primary prevention ICDs from 2005 to 2007 were merged with outcomes data through mid-2010 to construct and validate complete and abbreviated risk models for all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Over a median follow-up period of 4 years, 6,741 (37.5%) development and 8,595 (30.8%) validation cohort patients died. The abbreviated model was based on 7 clinically relevant predictors of mortality identified from complete model results, referred to as the "SHOCKED" predictors: 75 years of age or older (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62 to 1.79), heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III) (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.29 to 1.42), out of rhythm because of atrial fibrillation (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.33), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.61 to 1.80), kidney disease (chronic) (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 2.20 to 2.47), ejection fraction (left ventricular) ≤ 20% (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.33), and diabetes mellitus (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.50). This model had C-statistics of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.75 to 0.76) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.75) in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Validation patients in the highest risk decile on the basis of the SHOCKED predictors had a 65% 3-year mortality rate. A nomogram is provided for survival probabilities 1 to 4 years after ICD implantation. Conclusions: This useful model, based on more than 45,000 primary prevention ICD patients, accurately identifies patients at highest risk for death after device implantation and may significantly influence clinical decision making.
- heart failure
- implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- risk score
- sudden cardiac death
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine