Objectives: Prostate cancer treatment should depend on the characteristics of a patient's prostate cancer as well as overall health status. A possible adverse consequence of poor patient selection is a lack of benefit because of premature death from another cause. We evaluated the association between perioperative comorbidity and risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 14,052 men who underwent RP from 1983 to 2006. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score was calculated using the discharge records for the prostatectomy hospitalization. Mortality status and cause of death were obtained via chart review and searches of national databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death from causes other than prostate cancer after RP by CCI score (0, 1, 2+). Results: The median age at RP was 58.1 years. The median follow-up was 7.6 years (interquartile range 4.3-11.5). Of 849 deaths, 599 (70.6%) resulted from causes other than prostate cancer. On multivariable analysis, men with a CCI <2 had a statistically significantly higher risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer compared with those with lower CCI scores (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.30-3.64, P = .0003). Conclusions: Greater perioperative comorbidity was associated with a higher risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer in men who underwent RP. Physicians should consider using a standardized tool to assess perioperative comorbidities to enhance appropriate recommendation for surgical treatment.
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