Prediction of individualized lifetime benefit from cholesterol lowering, blood pressure lowering, antithrombotic therapy, and smoking cessation in apparently healthy people

Nicole E.M. Jaspers, Michael J. Blaha, Kunihiro Matsushita, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Kay Tee Khaw, Marie H. Geisel, Nils Lehmann, Raimund Erbel, Karl Heinz Jöckel, Yolanda Van Der Graaf, W. M.Monique Verschuren, Jolanda M.A. Boer, Vijay Nambi, Frank L.J. Visseren, Jannick A.N. Dorresteijn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Aims: The benefit an individual can expect from preventive therapy varies based on risk-factor burden, competing risks, and treatment duration. We developed and validated the LIFEtime-perspective CardioVascular Disease (LIFE-CVD) model for the estimation of individual-level 10 years and lifetime treatment-effects of cholesterol lowering, blood pressure lowering, antithrombotic therapy, and smoking cessation in apparently healthy people. Methods and results: Model development was conducted in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 6715) using clinical predictors. The model consists of two complementary Fine and Gray competing-risk adjusted left-truncated subdistribution hazard functions: one for hard cardiovascular disease (CVD)-events, and one for non-CVD mortality. Therapy-effects were estimated by combining the functions with hazard ratios from preventive therapy trials. External validation was performed in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (n = 9250), Heinz Nixdorf Recall (n = 4177), and the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (n = 25 833), and Norfolk (n = 23 548) studies. Calibration of the LIFE-CVD model was good and c-statistics were 0.67-0.76. The output enables the comparison of short-term vs. long-term therapy-benefit. In two people aged 45 and 70 with otherwise identical risk-factors, the older patient has a greater 10-year absolute risk reduction (11.3% vs. 1.0%) but a smaller gain in life-years free of CVD (3.4 vs. 4.5 years) from the same therapy. The model was developed into an interactive online calculator available via www.U-Prevent.com. Conclusion: The model can accurately estimate individual-level prognosis and treatment-effects in terms of improved 10-year risk, lifetime risk, and life-expectancy free of CVD. The model is easily accessible and can be used to facilitate personalized-medicine and doctor-patient communication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1190-1199
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean heart journal
Volume41
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 14 2020

Keywords

  • Apparently healthy people
  • Cardiovascular disease prevention
  • Lifetime prediction
  • Therapy-benefit

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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