Preconceptional folate intake and malformations of the cardiac outflow tract

Kelley S. Scanlon, Charlotte Ferencz, Christopher A. Loffredo, P. David Wilson, Adolfo Correa-Villaseñor, Muin J. Khoury, Walter C. Willett, Joanne A. Boughman, Carol A. Magee, Joel I. Brenner, Catherine A. Neill, Lowell W. Perry, Gerard R. Martin, John W. Downing, Mohammed K. Mardini, Seymour I. Hepner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


We compared cases with outflow tract defects (N = 126) with controls representative of the same birth cohort (N = 679). Infants with clinically recognized syndromes were excluded. Daily total maternal folate intake of ≤245 μg was inversely related to risk of cardiac outflow tract defects among those with transposition (odds ratio estimates: 0.65, 0.78, and 0.76 with increasing quartile of daily folate intake), but positively related among those with normally related vessels (corresponding odds ratio estimates: 1.18, 1.59, and 1.68). This difference disappeared when maternal intake of supplemental folic acid of ≤400 μg compared with <400 μg was considered, excluding dietary intake [odds ratio (OR) = 1.04: 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5-2.2 for infants with transposition, and OR = 0.91: 95% CI = 0.5-1.8 for those without transposition of the great arteries].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-98
Number of pages4
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac outflow tract defects
  • Cardiovascular malformations
  • Conotruncal defects
  • Folate
  • Folic acid
  • Multivitamin supplements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology


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