Precise control of osteogenesis for craniofacial defect repair: The role of direct osteoprogenitor contact in BMP-2-based bioprinting

Darren M. Smith, James J. Cray, Lee E. Weiss, Elmer K. Dai Fei, Sameer Shakir, Stephen Rottgers, Joseph E. Losee, Philip G. Campbell, Gregory M. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Success with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been widely reported in the osseous reconstruction of large calvarial defects. These efforts have required enormous doses of BMP-2 and are not sufficiently refined to facilitate the detail-oriented repair required for intricate craniofacial structures. We have previously shown that inkjet-based bioprinting technologies allow for precisely customized low-dose protein patterns to induce spatially regulated osteogenesis. Here, we investigate the importance of direct contact between bioprinted BMP-2 and the dura mater (a source of osteoprogenitors) in mediating calvarial healing. METHODS: Five-millimeter osseous defects were trephinated in mouse parietal bones (N = 8). Circular acellular dermal matrix (ADM) implants were prepared such that 1 semicircle of 1 face per implant was printed with BMP-2 bio-ink. These implants were then placed ink-toward (N = 3) or ink-away (N = 5) from the underlying dura mater. After 4 weeks, osteogenesis was assessed in each of the 4 possible positions (BMP-2-printed area toward dura, BMP-2-printed area away from dura, unprinted area toward dura, and unprinted area away from dura) by faxitron. RESULTS: The BMP-2-printed portion of the ADM generated bone covering an average of 66.5% of its surface area when it was face-down (printed surface directly abutting dura mater). By comparison, the BMP-2-printed portion of the ADM generated bone covering an average of only 21.3% of its surface area when it was face-up (printed surface away from dura). Similarly, the unprinted portion of the ADM generated an average of only 18.6% osseous coverage when face-down and 18.4% when face-up. CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that inkjet-based bioprinting has the potential to significantly enhance the role of regenerative therapies in craniofacial surgery. This technology affords the precise control of osteogenesis necessary to reconstruct this region's intricate anatomical architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that direct apposition of BMP-2-printed ADM to a source of osteoprogenitor cells (in this case dura mater) is necessary for bio-ink-directed osteogenesis to occur. These results have important implications for the design of more complex bioprinted osseous structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)485-488
Number of pages4
JournalAnnals of Plastic Surgery
Volume69
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bioprinting
Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Osteogenesis
Acellular Dermis
Dura Mater
Ink
Parietal Bone
Technology
Bone and Bones

Keywords

  • Bioprinting
  • BMP-2
  • Craniofacial healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Precise control of osteogenesis for craniofacial defect repair : The role of direct osteoprogenitor contact in BMP-2-based bioprinting. / Smith, Darren M.; Cray, James J.; Weiss, Lee E.; Dai Fei, Elmer K.; Shakir, Sameer; Rottgers, Stephen; Losee, Joseph E.; Campbell, Philip G.; Cooper, Gregory M.

In: Annals of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 69, No. 4, 10.2012, p. 485-488.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Smith, Darren M. ; Cray, James J. ; Weiss, Lee E. ; Dai Fei, Elmer K. ; Shakir, Sameer ; Rottgers, Stephen ; Losee, Joseph E. ; Campbell, Philip G. ; Cooper, Gregory M. / Precise control of osteogenesis for craniofacial defect repair : The role of direct osteoprogenitor contact in BMP-2-based bioprinting. In: Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2012 ; Vol. 69, No. 4. pp. 485-488.
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AU - Cray, James J.

AU - Weiss, Lee E.

AU - Dai Fei, Elmer K.

AU - Shakir, Sameer

AU - Rottgers, Stephen

AU - Losee, Joseph E.

AU - Campbell, Philip G.

AU - Cooper, Gregory M.

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Success with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has been widely reported in the osseous reconstruction of large calvarial defects. These efforts have required enormous doses of BMP-2 and are not sufficiently refined to facilitate the detail-oriented repair required for intricate craniofacial structures. We have previously shown that inkjet-based bioprinting technologies allow for precisely customized low-dose protein patterns to induce spatially regulated osteogenesis. Here, we investigate the importance of direct contact between bioprinted BMP-2 and the dura mater (a source of osteoprogenitors) in mediating calvarial healing. METHODS: Five-millimeter osseous defects were trephinated in mouse parietal bones (N = 8). Circular acellular dermal matrix (ADM) implants were prepared such that 1 semicircle of 1 face per implant was printed with BMP-2 bio-ink. These implants were then placed ink-toward (N = 3) or ink-away (N = 5) from the underlying dura mater. After 4 weeks, osteogenesis was assessed in each of the 4 possible positions (BMP-2-printed area toward dura, BMP-2-printed area away from dura, unprinted area toward dura, and unprinted area away from dura) by faxitron. RESULTS: The BMP-2-printed portion of the ADM generated bone covering an average of 66.5% of its surface area when it was face-down (printed surface directly abutting dura mater). By comparison, the BMP-2-printed portion of the ADM generated bone covering an average of only 21.3% of its surface area when it was face-up (printed surface away from dura). Similarly, the unprinted portion of the ADM generated an average of only 18.6% osseous coverage when face-down and 18.4% when face-up. CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that inkjet-based bioprinting has the potential to significantly enhance the role of regenerative therapies in craniofacial surgery. This technology affords the precise control of osteogenesis necessary to reconstruct this region's intricate anatomical architecture. In the present study, we demonstrate that direct apposition of BMP-2-printed ADM to a source of osteoprogenitor cells (in this case dura mater) is necessary for bio-ink-directed osteogenesis to occur. These results have important implications for the design of more complex bioprinted osseous structures.

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